Chapter 12: A very long list of Fire words

Primary ‘fire’ roots are monosyllabic B, P, F, V, C, G, S, H, (-). They make up only 3 per cent of the words listed.

Evolved ‘fire’ words are compounds of these primary roots with the six TEC consonants B, M, C, D, L and R. As there are relatively few words in the categories 1-4, all their compounds are combined in a single list (1.a, 2.a, etc.). Compounds with L and R are considerably more numerous and are listed separately (5.a for BLB, 5.b for BLM, 5.c for BLC etc).


Primary Roots:,B, P,F, V,C, G, S,H ,(-) 41

1 BB,FB,CB,HB,-B 37
1.a BB+,FB+,CB+,HB+,-B+ 24

2 BM,FM,CM,HM,-M 78
2.a BM+,FM+,CM+,HM+,-M+ 56

3 BC,FC,CC,HC,-C 124
3.a BC+,FC+,CC+,HC+,-C+ 47

4 BD,FD,CD,HD,-D 56
4.a BD+,FD+,CD+,HD+,-D+ 31

5 BL,FL,CL,HL,-L 127

6 BR,FR,CR,HR,-R 123

This schedule is the key to indexing. These roots cover every possible 'fire' root, from the primary syllables in the top row and all their combinations with the six-consonant TEC. There are relevant words for all these categories, even for BLL and BRR. The number of words in each class is shown on the right. Words with two elements (BM, BC) are more common than words with three elements (BM+, BC+). This suggests that fire words evolved very rapidly at some point and that relatively few were added later. Several exceptional spelling conventions have been discussed in the previous chapter and are summarised here.

Initial D, T and ST are indexed as C.
Initial SP is indexed as B.
Initial M and SM are indexed as B.
Initial L and R are indexed as CL and CR.
Initial STR is reduced to TR which is indexed as CR.

Some examples of indexation
ahjo (Fin.) ‘hearth, forge, furnace’. -C > 3
ara (Lat.) ‘altar, hearth’. -R > 6
äril (Sw.) ‘stove, fireplace, bottom of baking oven’. -RL > 6.e
arina (Fin.) ‘fire-grate’. -RM > 6.b
atesh (Pers.) ‘fire’ -TC > 4.a
cheragh (Pers.) ‘lamp’ CRC > 6.c
dagh (Pers.) ‘hot’. DC > CC > 3
djeg (Alb.) 'to burn, scorch'. DC > CC > 3
estrella (Cat.) ‘star’. CR (with prosthetic E and diminutive) > 6
kaski (Fin.) ‘burnt-over clearing’. CCC > 3.a
roushan (Pers.) ‘bright, alight’. -RC > 6.c
siltas (Lith.) ‘warm’. CLC > 5.c


Primary ‘fire’ roots and some close relatives
aos (G.) ‘fire, sun, God’.
be (Cat.) ‘sheep’. Sheep were guarded at night by fire.
bè (G.) 'life; wife, woman, female; night'. Fire is implicated in all of these.
bei (Chin.) ‘bake over slow fire’
beò (G.) ‘alive, living’. cf. .
bibhidh (G.) ‘very large fire’. An emphatic duplicate of *bi 'fire'.
cé (G.) ‘the world’ – the tribal deer forest.
cé, céile (G.) ‘spouse’– she looked after the fire.
chi (Chin.) ‘flaming, ablaze; hold, grasp’.
chytropous (Gr.) ‘a brazier used for heating’, lit. ‘fire carrier’.
daet (Ru.) ‘to milk’. Milk was 'hot stuff'.
daio, kaio (Gr.) ‘to burn, kindle, light up, set on fire, scorch’.
day (E.) ‘the time of light, from sunrise to sunset’.
die (Nor.) ‘breast-milk’.
fay (E.) ‘fairy (hunter)’. Hunters used fire.
fe (Nor.) ‘cattle’. Perhaps guarded with fire.
fe (Nor.) ‘fairy (hunter)’. Hunters used fire.
fée (Fr.) ‘fairy (hunter)’.
hi (Alb.) ‘ash, cinders’.
Hi (G.) Iona, a beacon island in the Inner Hebrides.
huo (Chin.) ‘fire; flaming; make a fire’. May be a compound.
ju (Chin.) ‘fire, torch; arrest, detain; assemble, gather’.
ke (Bas.) 'smoke'.
kou (Du.) ‘cold’. Extreme cold burns like fire.
pa (Cat.) ‘bread’. Something baked.
pai (Ru.) 'fire'; as in zapai ‘seal up, solder, weld’.
pee (E.). 'hot stuff'. Discussed in the introduction.
pi (Cat.) ‘sheep’ - an animal guarded by fire.
pie (E.). 'something baked'.
pipi (Fr) ‘urine’.
puu (Fin.) ‘wood’.
sky (Nor.) ‘cloud’. Probably originally 'smoke'.
steo (Gr.) ‘to boil’.
su (Bas.) 'fire'.
sui (Chin.) ‘flint; beacon fire; urine’.
svi (Nor.) ‘burn, singe, scorch’. SV > SB > B. Also in Lith., Ru.
sy (Alb.) ‘eye’? G. sùil 'eye' refers to a fire or beacon.
tio (Cat.) 'firebrand'.
phii (Khmer) 'ghosts, spirits'. In some traditions the spirit was liberated into the smoke at cremation.
vee (Du.) ‘cattle’.
xai (Cat.) ‘lamb’.

1 Compounds of primary roots with B, P, F, V, etc
apto (Gr.) ‘kindle, set on fire’.
ataplivat (Ru.) ‘to heat, warm’. PL root.
cìob (G.) ‘deer’s hair, heath club rush’ - used as the wick in a lamp or to catch a spark.
cìob (G.) ‘sheep’, the animal guarded by fire.
éibh (Archaic G.) ‘fire’.
estofar (Cat.) ‘to stew’. StF > CB
estovar (Cat.) ‘to melt’.
estufa (Cat.) ‘stove, heater’.
feber (Nor.) ‘fever’.
feu (Fr.) ‘fire’.
fever (E.) 'hot object'. Related to E. pepper.
fovere (Lat.) ‘to warm’.
gabhar (G.) ‘light, illumination’.
gafrur (Heb.) ‘match’.
huoba (Chin.) ‘torch’.
kafur (Ar.) ‘camphor, an aromatic resin’.
kipyet (Ru.) ‘to boil, seethe’.
prasvyet (Ru.) ‘clear space, chink, light shining through’. > CB.
rastaplivat (Ru.) ‘to heat, kindle, light, melt, thaw’. PL root; cf Ru. ataplivat.
sobe (Alb.) ‘cooker, stove’.
soup (E.) 'hot food'.
staivat (Ru.) ‘to thaw, melt away’; attaivat ‘to thaw’. > CB.
staplivat (Ru.) ‘to fuse, melt’.
stew (E.) 'hot food'.
stoof (Du.) ‘footwarmer’. StF > CB.
stoof (Du.) ‘stew’.
stove (E.) 'fire enclosed in a metal box'.
stow (E.) ‘beacon site’.
stube (Ger.) ‘(heated) room’.
stufe (Alb.) ‘cooker, stove’.
svyechenye (Ru.) ‘glint, shimmering’. SV > SBh > CB.
svyechka (Ru.) ‘candle’.
svyerkanye (Ru.) ‘glitter, sparkle’.
svyet (Ru.) ‘light’.
svyetoch (Ru.) ‘torch’
taper (E.) 'a primitive wax-candle'.
tapet (Ru.) ‘to heat, smelt’
taplevo (Ru.) ‘fuel’.
thaw (E.) 'melt'.
topka (Ru.) ‘furnace; heating'. > CB.
zhiv (Ru.) ‘active, lively’. Zh > CB. cf G. beò ‘alive, living’.
zift (Ar.) ‘pitch’.
zvake (Lith.) ‘candle, light, taper’. ZV > SBh > CB.
zwam (Du.) ‘fungus’.
zwam (Du.) ‘tinder, touchwood’.
zwam (Du.) ‘hot air; tosh’.

1.a Further compounds of BB, CB etc
apple (E.), a round red fruit. A pun on G. éibheall.
avuka (Heb.) ‘torch’.
éibheall (G.) ‘flame, live coal’.
éibhinn (G.) as in tein-éibhinn ‘bonfire’.
eibhle (G.) ‘fire’; eibhlich ‘to sparkle, kindle, flame’.
hipnos (Gr.) ‘a brazier used for heating’.
ipnos (Gr.) ‘oven, furnace; lantern’.
kapnos (Gr.) ‘to make smoke, to light a fire’.
kapplos (Gr.) ‘dry stalks, twigs, etc’.
kaptet (Ru.) ‘to smoke fish, etc’.
kopot (Ru.) ‘soot, lampblack’; zakaptyelay ‘smoky, smutty, sooty’
kepti, kepinti (Lith.) ‘fry, roast, bake’.
kipina (Fin.) ‘spark’.
ofen (Ger.) ‘stove, oven’. > BM.
optao (Gr.) ‘to roast, broil meat; boil; bake’. or > BD.
oven (E.) 'a heated chamber for baking and roasting'.
phepsalos (Gr.) ‘spark, brand, piece of ember, hot ashes’.
sabor (Ru.) ‘synod’ lit. ‘gathering fire’
skovka (Ru.) ‘welding’; skovavat ‘to forge, weld’; skavarada ‘frying pan’.
stapal (G.) ‘lamp’: found as ‘stable’ in English place-names.
stapyel (Ru.) ‘dockyard’. > CB.
tephra (Gr.) ‘ashes’.
tepid (E.) ‘lukewarm’.
tepidus (Lat.) ‘lukewarm’.
tvilkyti (Lith.) ‘to scald’; zvilgeti ‘to shine, be glossy’.
twisketi (Lith.) ‘to shine, twinkle’. TV > SB > CB
yablako (Ru.) ‘apple’.
zibeti (Lith.) ‘to shine, sparkle, twinkle, glitter’.
zaibas (Lith.) ‘lightning’; zaibuoti ‘flash, sparkle’; ziebti ‘to light’.
zibintas (Lith.) ‘lantern, lamp’.
zvilgeti (Lith.) ‘to shine, be glossy’; zvilginti ‘to polish’. Lith. tvilkyti ‘to scald’. > CBL. The link between polishing and scalding comes from scalding a skin to loosen the hairs when butchering a pig.
zybcioti (Lith.) ‘to gleam, flash’; zybseti ‘to flash’.

2. Compounds of primary roots with M, N, Ng, Gn
àin, àine (G.) ‘heat; fire’.
aino (Gr.) ‘to warm, heat, melt’.
bann (G.) ‘chain, fetter, cord’.
bann (G.) ‘summons (signal beacon)’.
bannag (G.) ‘Yule cake; bannock (a small baked object)’.
beam (E.) ‘ray of light; tree’.
beinn (G.) ‘mountain’.
bian (G.) ‘hide, pelt’.
boen (Du.) ‘wax’.
bone (E.) Bones were used as fuel in cold climates.
bone (Nor.) ‘polish, wax’.
cann (G.) ‘moon’ (gathering light).
ceann (G.) ‘deer trap’.
ceannaich (G.) ‘war (hunt)’.
cham, chome (Heb.) ‘hot, heat’.
chêne (Fr.) ‘oak’.
cinis (Lat.) ‘ashes’.
cuina (Cat.) ‘stove’.
eim (Nor.) ‘vapour, steam’.
fanar (Ru.) ‘lantern, street light’.
fane (Nor.) ‘banner, standard’. Originally a beacon signal.
fanfare (E.) 'signal by trumpets, announcement'. Originally a beacon fire.
feim (G.) ‘woman, female, wife’: ‘she who is concerned with the fire’.
feng (Chin.) ‘crevice, fissure (trap), beacon; meet; phoenix’.
fenge (Nor.) ‘catch fire, ignite, kindle’.
fiann (G.) ‘warrior (hunter)’. Who uses fire.
fine (G.) ‘family, kindred’. Those who live in obedience to the same beacon.
fionn (G.) ‘white’. Synonymous with fire.
føn (Nor.) ‘dry warm wind’.
fuin (G.) ‘bake bread’.
fum (Cat.) ‘smoke’.
fume (E.) ‘smoke’.
fumus (Lat.) ‘smoke’.
ganos (Gr.) ‘brightness, sheen’.
goin (G.) ‘wound; lance’.
guang (Chin.) ‘light, ray’.
guangyan (Chin.) ‘radiance, flare’.
guin (G.) ‘arrow, dart’.
guin (G.) ‘woman’. Cognate with feim.
hong (Chin.) ‘dried or warmed by the fire; red’.
huang (Chin.) ‘wastelands (hunting grounds); yellow; bright, brilliant; dazzle’.
iainein (Gr.) ‘to warm, heat, melt’.
ion (G.) ‘sun’.
kamen (Ru.) ‘fireplace, mantlepiece; stone, rock’.
kauma (Gr.) ‘burning heat’.
kiivas (Fin.) ‘hot (of temper)’.
kuuma (Fin.) ‘hot’; kuume ‘fever’; kuumus ‘heat’.
neimheach (G.) ‘glittering, shining, bright’. NV > MM > BM
pan (Du.) ‘cooking pot; tile’.
panis (Lat.) ‘bread’. Baked in a fire.
phanos (Gr.) ‘torch, lantern’.
phengos (Gr.) ‘light, splendour, lustre’.
phoinios (Gr.) ‘blood red’.
phoinix (Gr.) ‘purple-red, purple, crimson-red, dark red generally; the colour of fire’.
puna (Fin.) ‘red’.
savu (Fin.) ‘smoke’.
sheen, shine (E.)
shijn (Du.) ‘glimmer, shine’.
singe (E.) ‘to burn superficially’.
steam (E.) ‘vapour from boiling water’. St > C.
stoom (Du.) ‘steam’.
sumu (Fin.) ‘fog, mist’.
tan (E.) ‘to turn brown’.
teann-lamh (G.) ‘fire’. Te > Ch.
teine (G.) ‘fire’.
teine-rabhaidh (G.) ‘beacon’.
tenne (Nor.) ‘set fire to, set on fire, kindle, light a fire’.
tin (E.) 'silvery-white metal, easily smelted'.
tym (Alb.) ‘smoke’.
ugnis (Lith.) ‘fire’.
vaan (Du.) ‘flag, standard'. Signals were originally beacons.
vinnig (Du.) ‘biting cold, fierce, sharp’.
voin (Ru.) ‘soldier, warrior (hunter)’; voynai ‘war (hunting)’.
xin (Chin.) ‘hot (peppery); firewood, faggot, fuel; quarrel, dispute’.
ymbos (Gr.) ‘cremation site; cairn, barrow, tumulus’.
zhena (Ru.) ‘wife’.
zhenye (Ru.) ‘burning’.

2.a Further compounds of BM etc
agni (Skt.) ‘fire’.
agon (Ru.) ‘fire’; agnyevoy ‘fiery, ardent’.
aingeal (G.) ‘fire, light’.
amc (Hind.) ‘flame, blaze, heat’.
àmhuinn (G.) ‘oven, furnace’. Possibly for E. oven.
angara (Hind.) ‘glowing coal, spark, cinder; fiery red’.
angelia (Gr.) ‘message, tidings’. The original signal was fire or smoke.
anglys (Lith.) ‘coal, charcoal’.
anjelier, anjer (Du.) ‘carnation, pink’.
anthos (Gr.) ‘flower, brightness, brilliance’.
anthrakia (Gr.) ‘heap of wood or charcoal; hot coals’. cf G. àin ‘heat, fire’.
bandera (Cat.) ‘flag, banner’.
candere (Lat.) ‘to glow’.
candle (E.) 'cylinder of wax or tallow, surrounding a wick, burnt to provide light'.
cendra (Cat.) ‘cinders, ashes’.
centellejar (Cat.) ‘to sparkle, twinkle’.
donag (Heb.) ‘wax’. DN > CM.
ember (E.) 'piece of live coal or wood; live remains of a fire'.
encendre (Cat.) ‘to light, kindle, ignite’.
étincelle, estincel (Fr.) 'spark'. EST > C.
febris (Lat.) ‘fever’.
fenghuo (Chin.) ‘beacon fire, flames of war’.
fengyan (Chin.) ‘beacon fire, beacon’.
foment (E.) ‘to cherish with heat’.
fomentar (Cat.) ‘to foment, warm’.
fonedor (Cat.) ‘smelter’.
funale (Lat.) ‘a wax-torch’.
gnist (Nor.) ‘spark’. cf Lat. ignis, Lith. ugnis.
ignis (Lat.) ‘fire’.
incendi (Cat.) ‘fire’. The root is CN.
ingle (Sc.) ‘fire, fireplace’.
innes (G.) ‘island’.
innlis (G.) ‘lamp, lantern’.
kamin (Nor.) ‘fireplace’.
kaminos (Gr.) ‘furnace’.
kimallella (Fin.) ‘glimmer, glitter, sparkle’.
kindle (E.) 'light a fire'.
kynttila (Fin.) ‘candle’.
scintilla, stincilla (Lat.) ‘spark’,
senyal (Cat.) ‘token, signal, sign’.
senyera (Cat.) ‘banner, standard’.
shimmer (E.) 'to gleam, to glisten'.
shkendije (Alb.) ‘spark’.
sintel (Du.) ‘cinder’.
spindeti (Lith.) ‘shine, beam’; spindulys ‘ray, beam’. SP > B.
spingseti (Lith.) ‘to glimmer, twinkle’.
temper (E.) ‘rage’.
tindre (Nor.) ‘spark, twinkle’. > E. cinder.
tinsel (E.) 'something shiny like fire'. T > CM
tintelen (Du.) ‘twinkle, sparkle’.
ugnis (Lith.) ‘fire’.
vonk (Du.) ‘spark’.
wamth (Ar.) ‘flash’.

3. Compounds of primary roots with C, S, St, Z, H
achag (Ru.) ‘hearth’.
asgo (Goth.) ‘ashes’.
ash (E.) ‘the dry powdery remains of anything burnt’.
ashan (Heb.) ‘smoke’.
aske (Nor.) ‘ashes, cinders’.
ässja (Sw.) ‘forge’.
asta (Gr.) ‘dryness, heat’.
auge (Gr.) ‘bright light, gleam, sheen; pl. rays, sunbeams’. -C > BC
baak, baken (Du.) ‘beacon’.
bake (E.) ‘to cook in an oven’.
båke (Nor.) ‘beacon’.
baste (E.) ‘to dress a roast with fat’.
beishao (Chin.) ‘roast, bake’.
bek (Nor.) ‘pitch’.
bizi (Chin.) ‘grate, fire-grate’ (bi ‘shut, close’).
bush (E.) ‘a woody plant smaller than a tree’.
bustum (Lat.) ‘cremation site, hillock, tomb’.
ceis (G.) ‘lance, spear’.
cias (G.) ‘border, skirt, fringe (hunting grounds)’.
cook (E.) ‘to prepare food by heating’.
dagtis (Lith.) ‘wick’. > CC.
das, dais (Gr.) ‘pine-splinter’, used as a torch in Ancient Greece.
das, dais (Gr.) ‘war (hunting), feast, food’.
digjem, djegur (Alb.) ‘burn, scorch, scar, scald’. CC
dyoget (Ru.) ‘tar’. DG > CC.
doth (G.) ‘singe, scorch, burn’. CC or CD?
es (Du.) ‘ash’.
esh (Heb.) ‘fire, flame’. ‘And it shall be at that day, saith the Lord, thou shalt call me ISHI and shalt call me no more BAALI’. (Hosea 2, 16.) Both names mean ‘fire’.
faisca (Port.) ‘spark’.
fakyell (Ru.) ‘torch’.
fashena (Ru.) ‘faggot, firewood’.
feis (G.) ‘pig, swine’.
feks (Alb.) ‘gleam’.
foc (Cat.) ‘fire’.
focus (Lat.) ‘fire-place, hearth’.
fogo (Cat.) ‘stove’.
fogo (Port.) ‘light, fire
fspachivat (Ru.) ‘to flare up, burst into flames’;
fucus (Lat.) ‘rock lichen, orchil, from which a red dye was made; red or purple colour’.
fuscus (Lat.) ‘dark, swarthy, dusky’.
gazaaz (Ar.) ‘glass’.
géis (G.) ‘spear, javelin’
gjak (Alb.) ‘blood’.
gouhuo (Chin.) ‘campfire, bonfire.
hisse (Nor.) ‘fig. hot’.
huoguang (Chin.) ‘flame, blaze’.
huoju (Chin.) ‘torch’.
isachat (Ru.) ‘to dry up, wither away’.
izi (Alb.) ‘black’.
kaisti (Lith.) ‘to get warm; redden, blush’. > CC.
kakkeloven (Nor.) ‘stove’.
kastyor (Ru.) ‘bonfire, campfire’, from kost ‘bone’, as Lat. costa ‘rib’. Bones were used as fuel in cold climes.
kausis (Gr.) ‘burning heat’.
keihäs (Fin.) ‘spear’.
kiehua (Fin.) ‘boil’.
koke (Nor.) ‘boil, cook’.
koken (Du.) ‘boil’.
kukka (Fin.) ‘flower’. A visual metaphor for fire.
kuohua (Fin.) ‘to seethe’.
macha (Ru.) ‘urine’ (hot stuff); machet ‘to moisten, soak, wet’. > BC.
majakka (Fin.) ‘lighthouse’.
maslo (Ru.) ‘butter, oil’; Maslyenitsa ‘Shrovetide (the Fat season)’; mazat ‘to smear’, hence Fr. mazout. > BCL.
mayak (Ru.) ‘beacon, lighthouse’. > BC.
mgla (Ru.) ‘haze, mist’. > BC.
mishoora (Ru.) ‘tinsel’. > BC.
myach (Ru.) ‘ball (fire)’. > BC.
nais (G.) ‘furnace, hearth’: NC > MC > BC.
ndeshje (Alb.) ‘combat, battle, fight (hunt)’. > CC.
ndez (Alb.) ‘light, ignite’. > CC.
noki (Fin.) ‘soot’. NC > MC > BC.
nxeh (Alb.) ‘heat’. > CC?
nxij (Alb.) ‘blacken’. > CC?
omicho (Gr.) ‘to urinate’. A euphonic O. Cognate with Lat. mictio.
paisai (Lith.) ‘soot’.
pass (E.) ‘ravine, (deer trap)’.
paste (Ru.) ‘to graze’.
pech (Ru.) ‘oven, stove’.
pech (Sc.) ‘to puff’.
peis (Nor.) ‘open fire’.
peka (Ru.) ‘lance, spear’.
peyke (Gr.) ‘torch made of fir-wood or fir resin’.
phos (Gr.) ‘light’.
phykos (Gr.) ‘red paint or dye made from lichen’.
picea (Lat.) ‘the pitch-pine’.
pik (Du.) ‘pitch’, Ger. pech.
piss (E.) ‘urine’, hot stuff in a cold climate.
pissa (Gr.), Lat. pix ‘pitch’.
prasiyat (Ru.) ‘to brighten up, irradiate, shine through’.
pyech (Ru.) ‘oven, stove, furnace, kiln; to bake, roast’;
pachnoot (Ru.) ‘to emit smoke’;
pyepyel (Ru.) ‘ashes, cinders’. A diphthong?
pyech (Ru.) ‘oven, stove; to bake, roast’.
säikya (Fin.) ‘flash, sparkle’.
sakai (Lith.) ‘resin’.
sausti (Lith.) ‘to dry’.
sazha (Ru.) ‘smut, soot’.
schicht (Du.) ‘flash (of lightning)’.
sèche (Fr.) ‘dry’.
shestok (Ru.) ‘hearth’.
shu‘aa‘(Ar.) ‘flash’.
siccus (Lat.) ‘dry’.
sissen (Du.) ‘sizzle’.
siuc (G.) ‘scorched’.
siyanye (Ru.) ‘brightness, radiance’.
skug (Alb.) ‘redden; fry’.
smoke (E.) 'the gases and solid particles which rise from a burning object'.
soochoy (Ru.) ‘dry, lean, parched’.
soot (E.) 'densely black deposit left by smoke'. CT > CC.
stoken (Du.) ‘burn (wood or coal)’. > CC.
suodinti, suodziai (Lith.) ‘soot, smut’.
susvisti (Lith.) ‘to shine, light up’.
svaiste (Lith.) ‘gleam, ray’. cf. Nor. svi ‘burn’, Ru. svyeti ‘light’, Bas. su 'fire'.
sviesa (Lith.) ‘light’.
sviesti (Lith.) ‘to shine, give light’.
svisti (Lith.) ‘to dawn’.
svysteleti (Lith.) ‘to flash’.
taguen (Heb.) ‘to fry’.
tähti (Fin.) ‘star’.
takka (Fin.) ‘fireplace’.
teas (G.) ‘heat, warmth’.
teko (Gr.) ‘to melt down, smelt’.
toocha (Ru.) ‘cloud’.
tuike (Fin.) ‘twinkle’.
uoga (Lith.) ‘berry’. cf G. ugh ‘egg’ and the collective sugh ‘berry’.
ush (Skr.) ‘to burn’.
vaha (Fin.) ‘wax’.
vasachet (Ru.) ‘to dry up, wither, parch’.
wax (E.) 'beeswax'. Used to make candles.
xixe (Alb.) ‘spark’.
zeze (Alb.) ‘black’.
zhech (Ru.) ‘to burn, consume, scorch’.
zhigat (Ru.) ‘to burn up, consume’: abzhigat ‘to burn, scorch, bake’; azhog ‘to burn, scald’; padzhigat ‘to set on fire, burn’; padzhog ‘arson’; prizhigat ‘to cauterize, scorch’; razzhigat ‘to kindle’; razhi ‘gingery, red-haired’; vazhigat ‘to burn out, cauterize’; vazzhigat ‘to kindle, light’; zazhigat ‘to ignite, light, set fire to’.

3.a Further compounds of BC, CC etc
aigle (Gr.) ‘light, glitter, lustre, gleam’.
baheer (Heb.) ‘clear, bright’.
beacon (E.)
beckon (E.) ‘to make a summoning sign’.
bishul (Heb.) ‘cooking’.
bochd (G.) ‘fire’.
boslach (G.) ‘fire’.
cagailt (G.) ‘hearth’.
dazzle (E.) ' to overpower with bright light'.
de’guel (Heb.) ‘flag, banner (a light signal)’.
degali (Lith.) ‘fuel’.
deginti (Lith.) ‘burn, scorch, bake’.
deglas (Lith.) ‘torch’.
degti (Lith.) ‘to burn, bake, flame up, flare up’;
deisleann (G.) ‘ray of light’.
efusiv (Cat.) ‘warm’.
fackel (Ger.) ‘torch made of a splinter of wood’.
fax (Lat.) ‘torch, flambeau’.
figheis (G.) ‘spear, lance’.
foguera (Cat.) ‘bonfire’.
funkle (Nor.) ‘to sparkle, glitter’.
gaisras (Lith.) ‘fire, conflagration’.
gist (Du.) ‘yeast, barm’.
hehku (Fin.) ‘glow’; hehkuvai ‘glowing, red-hot, burning’.
hoseg (Hung.) ‘heat’.
isdeginti (Lith.) ‘burn, scorch, brand’.
kachel (Du.) ‘kettle’.
kekäle (Fin.) ‘firebrand’.
kekälet (Fin.) ‘embers’.
kokkinos (Gr.) ‘scarlet’.
nuodegulis (Lith.) ‘firebrand’;
omichle (Gr.) ‘smoke, steam’. Euphonic O as in Gr. omicho 'to urinate'.
paahtaa (Fin.) ‘to heat (of sun); to roast (on spit)’.
paaistaa (Fin.) ‘to shine, fry, roast, bake’.
padegti (Lith.) ‘to set on fire’.
paiste (Fin.) ‘shine, glare’.
passion (E.) 'strong feeling; ardent love, hatred or rage'.
paster (Alb.) ‘clean, pure, fair’.
peshwa (Per.) ‘chief’.
pozar (Lith.) ‘fire’.
seesteinen (Fin.) ‘clear, bright’.
sizzle (E.) 'a hissing sound; extreme heat'.
soihtu (Fin.) ‘torch’.
taighleach (G.) ‘bright’
tuhka (Fin.) ‘ash’.
tuzel (Hung.) ‘fuel’.
vezullon (Alb.) ‘twinkle, glimmer, glitter’.
vigil (E.) ‘watching, esp. by night’, around a fire; cf G. geal ‘bright’.
yagada (Ru.) ‘berry’.
yasnay (Ru.) ‘bright, clear’.
yitwahhaj (Ar.) ‘glow, shine’.
zaizdras (Lith.) ‘furnace, hearth’.
zohar (Heb.) ‘glow, brightness’.

4 Compounds of primary roots with D, T, Th
ad (Ru.) ‘hell, inferno’.
aith (G.) ‘kiln, skirmish’.
aithein (Gr.)‘to light up’.
aither (Gr.) ‘the heavens’.
aithon (Gr.) ‘fiery, burning, flashing, glittering; yellow, tawny’.
aithos (Gr.) ‘burning heat, fire’.
aodh (G.) ‘fire’.
aoidh (G.) ‘guest’ (one who responds to a beacon signal).
ayein (Gr.) ‘to dry, wither, singe, set on fire’. cf G. aodhan 'fire', pron. 'ewen'.
biadh (G.) ‘meat, provender’.
bioda (G.) ‘hill-top (beacon site)’.
biodh, bith (G.) ‘the world (the tribal deer forest)’.
bith (G.) ‘custom, habit, order, law, wound, contest (hunt)’.
bìth (G.) ‘resin, tar, bitumen’.
bitumen (Lat.) the name of various inflammable mineral substances.
buite (G.) ‘firebrand’.
chad (Ru.) ‘smoke, steam; smell of cooking’.
citt (Hind.) ‘bright, clear, white’.
dziuti (Lith.) ‘to dry, become dry’.
eyein (Gr.) ‘to roast’.
eyein (Gr.) ‘to seize (hunt)’.
fad (G.) ‘distant, long’ - the range of a light.
fad (G.) ‘peat’.
fad (G.) ‘to kindle’.
fath (G.) ‘heat; long narrow glen (deer trap)’.
fiadh (G.) ‘deer, land, food’. Animal hunted with fire?
gath (G.) ‘arrow, spear, beam of light (signal)’.
gnat (Ru.) ‘to hunt, pursue, drive’.
guidhe (G.) ‘prayer, intercession, curse’.
hautua (Fin.) ‘steam, brew’.
heat, hot (E.) 'extreme warmth, very warm'.
hitte (Du.) ‘fire, heat’.
hohde (Fin.) ‘gleam, shimmer’.
net (Heb.) ‘candle’.
nuotio (Fin.) ‘camp-fire’.
paideag (G.) ‘torch made of linen dipped in tallow’.
peat (E.) 'decayed vegetable matter dried and used as fuel'.
phaetho (Gr.) ‘to shine’.
photos (Gr.) ‘light’.
pit (Du.) ‘wick, pith; burner on cooker’.
pitch (E.) 'a tar distilled from pines and similar trees'.
pith (E.) 'soft tissue contained inside the stalks of some plants'. The dried pith of reeds was used as a wick in oil lamps in the Upper Palaeolithic.
pod (Ru.) ‘hearth’.
puy (Fr.) ‘hill (beacon hill)’. If from Lat. podium, was a podium a beacon stance?
säde (Fin.) ‘beam, ray’.
seethe (E.) 'to boil in water'.
sgiot (G.) ‘dart, arrow’.
shit (E.), hot stuff in a cold climate.
sjati (Crt.) ‘shine, blaze, beam’.
skaitus (Lith.) ‘bright’.
smùdan (G.) ‘smoke raised as a signal’. SmD > MD > BD
spodos (Gr.) ‘ashes, embers, wood ash; ashes of the dead’.
stado ‘flock, herd’; staya ‘bevy, flock’ (guarded by fire).
svyteti (Lith.) ‘to shine, glow’.
svytuoti (Lith.) ‘to twinkle, flash, sparkle’.
sweat (E.) 'moisture exuded from skin when overheated'. SWT > MD.
sytta (Fin.) ‘set fire to, kindle, light’.
taeda (Lat.) ‘fire-brand, pine torch’.
teth (G.) ‘hot’.
ved (Nor.) ‘firewood’.
ziedas (Lith.) ‘blossom’. Flowers are a universal metaphor for fire.

4.a Further compounds of BD, CD etc
adhannadh (G.) ‘kindling’.
adom (Heb.) ‘red’.
aher (Hind.) ‘hunting’; ahir ‘huntsman’.
aiteal (G.) ‘light, gleam of light’.
aithaloeis (Gr.) ‘burning, blazing, smoky, ashy, sooty, black’; aithalos ‘smoky flame’.
aithinne (Gr.) ‘firebrand, charcoal’.
atara (Ru.) ‘flock of sheep’ (guarded by fire).
buidealaich (G.) ‘blaze of fire’.
chatab (Ar.) ‘firewood’.
etiwyn (W.) ‘firebrand’.
feithil (G.) ‘to gather, assemble, keep’.
fitel (Ru.) ‘wick’.
futes (Hung.) ‘fire, heating’.
gatuaj (Alb.) ‘cook’.
giuthas (G.) ‘Scots pine’ (used for kindling).
kaitra (Lith.) ‘heat, intense heat’.
katharos (Gr.) ‘bright, pure, clear’.
kauter (Gr.) ‘a hot iron’.
ketel (Du.) ‘boiler’.
m’dura (Heb.) ‘bonfire, flame’.
nitsots (Heb.) ‘spark’.
peithir (G.) ‘forester, gamekeeper, hunter’, cf. piuthar.
photisto (Gr.) ‘to shine, give light, beam’.
piuthar (G.) ‘sister’. She tended the fire.
schittern (Du.) ‘shine, glitter, sparkle’.
she’ten (Heb.) ‘urine’. More hot stuff.
svyturys (Lith.) ‘lighthouse, beacon’.
teididh (G.) ‘wild fire’.
vatra (Lith.) ‘fire’.
vetetime (Alb.) ‘lightning’.
zidinys (Lith.) ‘hearth, home, fireside, focus, centre’.

5 Simple compounds of primary roots with L giving BL, CL etc
amalas (Lith.) ‘sheet-lightning’. Initial A is probably euphonic.
asbolos (Gr.) ‘soot’. > BL with prefix.
Baali, a name of God (Hosea 2, 16).
bail, bale, bele, bell (Sc.) ‘bonfire, signal fire, flame or blaze of any kind’.
bal (G.) ‘the sun’.
bål (Nor.) ‘fire, bonfire, pyre, funeral pile’.
balefire (E.) ‘bonfire’.
bell (E.) ‘signal, hill (beacon hill); a metal object which gives a ringing sound’. Bells replaced fires as a local signal.
kolos (Sw.) ‘fumes from burning coal or wood’.
kulo (Fin.) ‘forest fire’.
belos (Gr.) ‘arrow, dart, glance, anything thrown’. Compared with a ray of light.
beol (G. ) ‘robber (hunter)’. One who uses fire.
beolach (G.) ‘ashes with hot embers’.
beoll (G.) ‘fire’.
bile (G.) ‘leaf, blossom’. A metaphor for fire.
bile (G.) ‘rim, edge, margin of anything (hunting land)’.
bilia (Lat.) ‘pile of wood’.
bille (Gaulish) ‘standing stone’.
boil (E.) ‘to heat water until it bubbles’.
bol (Du.) ‘beacon’.
bulla (Lat.) ‘bubble’.
byelay (Ru.) ‘white’; byelakalelnay ‘white hot’.
caleo (Lat.) ‘to be warm, or hot’.
caliu (Cat.) ‘cinders, ashes’.
ceallach (G.) ‘war (hunt)’.
ceile-de (G.) ‘preserver of the fires’?
çelem (Alb.) ‘to brighten up, bloom, blossom’.
celo (Sp.) ‘zeal, ardour’.
chilli (Nahuatl) ‘pepper’.
cill (G.) ‘cell; graveyard (cremation site; red ochre; death (a butchery site)’.
ciol (G.) ‘death’.
coal (E.) ‘a combustible stone; cinder, charcoal, ember’.
culli (Drav.) ‘stove, hearth’.
dalos (Gr.) ‘firebrand, torch, beacon-light’. > BL.
dealan (G.) ‘flaming coal’. > BL.
eala (G.) ‘pillar stone, sanctuary’.
Elath, Eleph, Elijah, Elisha, Elohim, Rach-el (Heb.)
estal (Cat.) ‘star’. > CL with prosthetic E.
estrella (Cat.) ‘star’. > CR with prosthetic E.
falladh (G.) ‘power, rule’.
feile (G.) ‘charm, incantation’.
féill (G.) ‘feast, fair, market’.
fell (E.) ‘hill, moor’.
feòil (G.) ‘flesh’.
fial (G.) ‘bounty, hospitality’.
filfil, falaafil (Ar.) ‘pepper’.
flue (E.) ‘small chimney’.
folia (Lat.) ‘leaf’.
follis (Lat.) ‘bellows’.
fual (G.) ‘urine’.
fuel (E.) 'anything combustible that can be fed to a fire'.
fuil (G.) ‘blood; family, tribe, kindred’. Those who shared a fire.
gal (G.) ‘blast of flame’.
geal (G.) ‘bright, radiant’.
gealach, gil (G.) ‘the moon’.
gelar (Cat.) ‘to freeze’.
gleò (G.) ‘haziness’, from smoke?
glo (Nor.) ‘live coal, ember’.
gloeien (Du.) ‘glimmer, dawn’.
gluair (G.) ‘clear, bright, shining’.
goil (G.) ‘cook by boiling; smoke, vapour, fume; battle (hunt); rage, fury’.
goileam (G.) ‘fire, fire-kindling’.
goill (G.) ‘war, fight (hunt)’.
Gulli-burstin (O.Nor.) the boar with the golden bristles on whose back Frey, god of sunshine, rode across the sky each day. Otherwise fire, or the sun.
haalea (Fin.) ‘lukewarm’.
hel (Du.) ‘bright, glaring’.
helea (Fin.) ‘bright, clear’.
hell (E.) ‘a fiery place’.
hella (Fin.) ‘cooker, range’.
helle (Fin.) ‘heat, hot weather’.
hiili (Fin.) ‘coal’.
hiillos (Fin.) ‘embers’.
ial (G.) ‘gleam of sunshine’.
kalos (Gr.) ‘beautiful, fair’.
kiskal (Bas.) 'burned, scorched, charred'.
ksulon (Gr.) ‘firewood’.
kull (Nor.) ‘charcoal’.
kulo (Fin.) ‘forest fire, wildfire’.
looien (Du.) ‘tan'. To turn brown, scorch as fire does.
lue (Nor.) ‘blaze, flame’.
neul (G.) ‘glimpse of light’. NL > ML > BL
oil (E.) 'inflammable liquid pressed out of nuts'.
oll-drèag (G.) ‘funeral pile, bonfire’.
oogol (Ru.) ‘coal’.
paella (Cat.) ‘frying pan’.
pal (Ru.) ‘blaze, flame’.
pal (Ru.) ‘dust, ashes’.
palaa (Fin.) ‘burn, be on fire’.
pale, pallid (E.) 'white', originally 'light, bright'.
palirovka (Ru.) ‘gloss, polish’.
palki (Ru.) ‘ardent’.
pallo (Fin.) ‘ball’.
palo (Fin.) ‘fire’.
peel (Sc.) ‘tower’.
pell (Sc.) ‘candle’.
pijl (Du.) ‘arrow, bolt, dart’. cf E. bill, Ger. pfeil, G. biail 'axe, hatchet'. A pan-European word.
pile (E.) 'heap of combustibles for cremating a body', the L version of pyre
pili-pili (Bantu) ‘pepper’.
pol, bol (G.) ‘place’.
psolos (Gr.) ‘soot, smoke’. PS > P > B.
salo (Ru.) ‘fat, grease, lard, suet, tallow’.
spalet (Ru.) ‘to singe’. SP > B.
saule (Lith.) ‘sun’.
selas (Gr.) ‘bright, light, brightness; bright flame, blaze, flash; torch’.
selene (Gr.) ‘the moon’.
šilas (Lith.) ‘pine forest’.
skello (Gr.) ‘dry, dry up, parch, wither;.
smala (Ru.) ‘pitch, tar, resin’.
smeulen (Du.) ‘smoulder’. ML > BL.
soilleadh (G.) ‘roast, fry’.
soillsich (G.) ‘shine, gleam, show forth’.
sol (G.) ‘sun’: the sun was seen as a huge bonfire.
solar (E.) ‘a wooden beacon tower’.
solus (G.) ‘light, phase of the moon, illumination, any radiating heavenly body; a round ball thrown into the air, moon (beacon, lantern)’. G. tigh-solus ‘beacon, light-house’.
steel (E.) ‘iron tempered by heating and hammering’.
stella (Lat.) ‘star’.
stiall (G.) ‘ray of light’.
sùil (G.) ‘eye’. G. fighe suil-eòin ‘eye of the fire’, a lozenge-shaped pattern.
sula (Fin.) ‘unfrozen, liquid, thawed’.
teallach (G.) ‘hearth, furnace’.
tela (Cat.) ‘torch, firebrand’. > CL
thallo (Gr.) ‘bloom, flourish, prosper’.
tul (G.) ‘fire, hearth’. > CL
tuli (Fin.) ‘fire’. > CL
tulipalo (Fin.) ‘fire’. > CL repeated
valo (Fin.) ‘light’.
vol (Ru.) ‘bull, ox’.
volos (Ru.) ‘hair’.
yll (Alb.) ‘star’.
zala (Ru.) ‘ashes, embers’.
zapal (Ru.) ‘fuse, vent’.
zeal (E.) ‘burning enthusiasm’.

5.a Further compounds of BL, CL etc. with B, V, F etc
aleifar (Gr.) ‘oil, pitch, resin’, smeared on the dead to make them burn more readily.
escalfor (Cat.) ‘heat, warmth’. > CLB.
flaw (Sc.) ‘flash of fire’.
flower (E.) 'the blossom of a plant, usually a bright colour'; used as a metaphor for fire especially at funerals and at celebrations.
fluff (Sc.) ‘burn explosively’.
fulvus (Lat.) ‘deep yellow, reddish yellow, gold-coloured, tawny’.
glaff (Sc.) ‘sudden blast’.
glavar (Crt.) ‘head’.
glow (E.) 'to shine with an intense heat; to emit a stead light'.
kiilto (Fin.) ‘lustre, gloss’.
labav (Heb.) ‘flame, blade’.
laphusso (Gr.) ‘to eat greedily’.
laphyra (Gr.) ‘spoils of war (of the chase)’.
lapros (Gr.) ‘furious, boisterous’.
lav (Crt.).‘lion (hunter)’.
lavet (Ru.) ‘to catch, hunt’; lavyets ‘hunter’. > -LB > CLB.
leaf (E.) 'a green part of a plant'. When dry used as kindling.
lov (Crt.) ‘to hunt’. Hunters used fire.
lowe (Sc.) ‘fire, bonfire’.
palava (Fin.) ‘burning’.
shlifavat (Ru.) ‘to polish’.
stilbo (Gr.) ‘to shine, glitter, glisten’.
thalpo (Gr.) ‘to warm, heat, inflame’. > CLB.
veliava (Lith.) ‘banner, flag’.

5.b Further compounds of BL, CL etc. with M, N, etc
àlainn (G.) ‘beautiful, fair, handsome, glorious, white, bright, clear’.
aleimma (Gr.) ‘unguent, fat, oil, anything used to anoint’.
aleino (Gr.) ‘to warm up, heat’.
balmy (E.) 'warm'.
blank (Nor.) ‘shining, glossy, bright’; blink ‘to flash, gleam, twinkle’.
blink (E.) 'to twinkle or wink; a brief glimpse of light'.
blinken (Du.) ‘shine, gleam, glitter’.
blond (Du.) ‘fair, light’.
bloem (Du.) 'flower'.
calenta (Cat.) ‘hot, warm’.
enllumena (Cat.) ‘to light up’.
espelma (Cat.) ‘candle’.
flama (Cat.) ‘flame, blaze’.
flame (E.) 'the gleam or blaze of a fire'.
flamme (Nor.) ‘flame; to blaze, flame up’.
flamur (Alb.) ‘banner, flag’.
flint (E.) 'a hard stone used to make sparks to light a fire'.
flomme (Nor.) ‘overflow’.
flonkeren (Du.) ‘sparkle, twinkle’.
fulmen (Lat.) ‘lightning, thunder-bolt (that which sets on fire)’.
gane gleam (Sc.) ‘taken fire’.
glance (E.) 'to flash'.
glans (Du.) ‘shine, gloss, lustre’.
glans (Nor.) ‘lustre, gloss, brilliant’.
gleam (E.) 'to glow or shine, not very brightly'.
gleann (G.) ‘narrow valley (hunting ambush)’.
glim (E.) ‘glimpse; light’.
glimmen (Du.) ‘shine, glimmer, gleam, glow’.
glimmer (E.) 'to burn faintly'.
glimre (Nor.) ‘to glitter, shine’.
glimt (Nor.) ‘gleam, glimpse, twinkle; vb. to flash’.
glinse (Nor.) ‘glisten, shine’.
glinsteren (Du.) ‘glitter, sparkle, shimmer, glint’.
glint (E.) 'to flash, reflect'.
glonnrach (G.) ‘glittering, resplendent’.
helmeilla (Fin.) ‘sparkle’.
inflamar (Cat.) ‘to ignite, blaze’.
kalyenye (Ru.) ‘incandescence’; byelakalelnayi ‘white hot’; kalyonay ‘red-hot’; nakal ‘white heat, incandescence’. > CLM.
klanac (Crt.) ‘mountain pass, gorge (hunting ambush)’.
laimea (Fin.) ‘lukewarm, weak’.
laindéar (Ir.) ‘lantern’.
lainnir (G.) ‘brightness, brilliance’.
lama’an (Ar.) ‘flash, gleam, shine.’
lämmin (Fin.) ‘warm, hot’.
lamp (E.) ‘vessel containing a substance burnt to provide a light (a beacon)’.
lampas (Gr.) ‘torch, a pan or fire pot on a support to hold a torch’.
lämpiö (Fin.) ‘foyer’.
lämpö (Fin.) ‘warmth, heat’.
lampo (Gr.) ‘to shine, be brilliant, bright, radiant, to shine forth, to light up’.
lamppu (Fin.) ‘lamp’.
lampter (Gr.) ‘a type of candelabrum’.
lan (Ru.) ‘deer, doe, hind’.
lance (E.) 'spear'.
lannar (G.) ‘bright, gleaming, radiant’.
lantern (E.) 'a portable source of light'.
laom (G.) ‘blaze of fire; crowd’.
laom (Ir.) ‘flash, blaze’.
laomadh (G.) ‘blazing’.
launch (E.) 'to dart, to send forth'. As E. lance.
lauw (Du.) ‘tepid’.
leannan (G.) ‘fairy sweetheart, the deer goddess’. The hunter's friend, fire personified.
léar (Ir.) ‘glimmer, gleam’.
leimahta (Fin.) ‘flash, burst into flames, flare up’.
leimuta (Fin.) ‘flame, blaze’.
liemi (Fin.) ‘soup’.
liepsna (Lith.) ‘flame, flare, blaze’.
limpidus (Lat.) ‘clear’.
link (E.) ‘torch’.
lipas (Gr.) ‘fat, oil’.
llachar (W.) ‘gleaming, glittering, bright’.
llambe (Alb.) ‘lamp’.
llamp (Cat.) ‘lightning’.
llampec (Cat.) ‘flash’.
llampec (Cat.) ‘flash’. > PLM
llampeguehar (Cat.) ‘to sparkle’. > PLM
llanterna (Cat.) ‘lantern’.
llantia (Cat.) ‘lamp’.
llewyn (W.) ‘bright, gleaming’.
lluent (Cat.) ‘shining, bright’. cf lluita ‘struggle, fight (hunt)’.
llum (Cat.) ‘lamp’.
llumi (Cat.) ‘match’.
lluna (Cat.) ‘moon’.
lochrann (Ir.) ‘lantern, light, lamp, torch’.
loinnear (G.) ‘light, gleam of light, flash of light’.
lomhair (G.) ‘brilliant, shining’.
lum (Sc.) ‘chimney’.
lume (Port.) ‘fire, flame’.
lumen (Lat.) ‘light, lamp, torch, etc.’
luminae (Lat.) ‘eyes’.
lyn (Nor.) ‘lightning’; lyne ‘flash’.
maolan (G.) ‘beacon’.
molnya (Ru.) ‘lightning, flash’. > BLM.
palomnichestvo (Ru.) ‘pilgrimage’.
plain (E.) ‘the extent of a beacon’s range’.
plamen (Crt.) ‘flame’.
plamya (Ru.) ‘blaze, flame’.
plamya (Ru.) ‘flame, blaze’.
planet (E.) ‘a fiery body’?
planina (Crt.) ‘mountain’.
plant (E.) ‘that which catches fire’.
planuti (Crt.) ‘to catch fire’.
plav (Crt.) ‘fair, blonde’.
pleme (Crt.) ‘tribe’.
plemic (Crt.) ‘nobleman’.
plevoti (Lith.) ‘flame, blaze’.
pluff (Sc.) ‘to throw out puffs of smoke; to set fire to suddenly’.
plum (E.) 'a round red fruit, like a small fire'.
plume (E.) 'large showy feather or tuft of feathers', from a resemblance to smoke.
resplendir (Cat.) ‘glow, shine, gleam’.
šiluma (Lith.) ‘warmth, heat’.
splang (G.) ‘sparkle, flash, blaze’.
splendere (Lat.) ‘to shine’.
splinter (E.) ‘a slender fragment of wood used as a torch’.
vlam (Du.) ‘flame, blaze’; opvlammen (Du.) ‘flare up’.

5.c Further compounds of BL, CL etc. with C etc
aglaos (Gr.) ‘bright, brilliant, beautiful’. CLC with euphonic A.
alechia (Gr.) ‘sun, fire’.
blaken (Du.) ‘to burn, scorch, char’.
blaze (E.) 'rush of light or flame'.
blazen (Du.) ‘to blow a trumpet, to give a signal’.
blazon (E.) ‘to make public, display; coat of arms’. A beacon signal?
bleek (Du.) ‘pale, wan’.
bliksen (Du.) ‘lightning’.
blista (Ru.) ‘to shine’.
blizgeti (Lith.) ‘to shine, glitter, sparkle’; blitzginti ‘to polish’; subligztii ‘flash’.
bloklay (Ru.) ‘faded, withered’.
blos (Du.) ‘blush’.
blosg (G.) ‘light; sound a horn’.
bloze (Alb.) ‘soot’.
blush (E.) ‘to redden’.
bluss (Nor.) ‘blaze, flame, flare’.
blussen (Du.) ‘quench a fire’.
blussende (Nor.) ‘flushed’.
blyesk (Ru.) ‘glitter, lustre, brilliance’; problyesk ‘gleam, ray of light, spark’.
blyksti (Lith.) ‘to turn pale’; blikeioti, blikseti ‘to gleam’; bliksteleti ‘flash’.
blysa (A-S.) ‘fire, torch’.
boillsg (G.) ‘gleam, glare, flash’.
chalkos (Gr.) ‘brass, copper, bronze’.
Colossus of Rhodes (a light-house).
d’laika (Heb.) ‘fire’.
delek (Heb.) ‘fuel’.
fflach (W.) ‘flash, gleam’.
fflwch (W.) ‘bright’.
flag (E.) ‘signal’.
flag, flaught (Sc.) ‘flash of lightning’.
flagro (Lat.) ‘to flame, blaze, burn, be on fire’.
flake (Alb.) ‘flame, blaze’.
flash (E.) 'a brief but intense gleam of light'.
flicker (E.) 'to burn unsteadily'.
flikkeren (Du.) ‘flicker, glitter, twinkle’; opflikkeren (Du.) ‘flare up, blaze up’.
flitsen (Du.) ‘flash’.
flock (E.) 'animals, especially sheep, who are protected by fire'.
flush (E.) ‘to become red’.
fulgor (Cat.) ‘brilliance, glow’.
fulgor (Cat.) ‘glow’.
fulgur (Lat.) ‘flash, glitter, gleam, flash of lightning’.
glaçar (Cat.) ‘to freeze’.
glack (Sc.) 'a flash; dazzling'.
glaik (Sc.) ‘reflected beam, gleam or glance’.
glaise (Sc.) ‘to warm at a strong fire’.
glass (E.) ‘a highly-polished substance’.
glaucus (Lat.) ‘blue-grey (smoke-coloured)’.
glaykos (Gr.) ‘gleaming, glaring, bright’.
glaz (Ru.) ‘eye’.
glaze (E.) ‘a shiny surface’.
gleac (G.) ‘fight, wrestle (hunt)’.
gleis (Sc.) ‘splendour’.
glisk (Sc.) ‘glance of light, transient ray’.
glois (Sc.) ‘a blaze’.
gloss (E.) ‘brightness, lustre’.
gloss (Sc.) ‘a low clear fire with no smoke’.
halko (Fin.) ‘firewood’.
lahab (Ar.) ‘flame’. > -LC.
laogh (G.) ‘young deer, calf’.
las (G.) ‘burn, blaze, gleam, inflame’.
lasair (G.) ‘blaze’.
lauzas (Lith.) ‘bonfire’.
lauzas (Lith.) ‘fire, bonfire’.
leac (G.) ‘flag, slab of stone, hill, summit of a hill’. A beacon site were often on bare rock, the result of repeated burning.
leig (G.) ‘fire’.
leukos (Gr.) ‘light, bright, brilliant, dear; white’.
leus (G.) ‘blaze, flame, light, ray of light, torch’.
leus-mara (G) ‘beacon’.
licharadka (Ru.) ‘fever’. > -LC.
licht (Du., Ger.) ‘light’.
liekki (Fin.) ‘flame’.
liesi (Fin.) ‘cooker’.
light (E.) 'that by which we see; sun, lamp'.
lignys (Gr.) ‘smoke mixed with flame; murky smoke’.
lijk (Du.) ‘corpse’. A dried body, fuel for a bonfire.
lis, lys (Fr.) ‘lily; a large white flower with radiating petals, symbol of light’.
lluissor (Cat.) ‘glow’. -LLS > ChLC
lòchran (G.) ‘light, lamp, torch’.
log (E.) ‘bulky piece of wood’.
logos (Gr.) ‘word'. A message or signal.
loistaa (Fin.) ‘to shine, beam’.
loiste (Fin.) ‘shine, light, sparkle’.
looch (Ru.) ‘beam, ray’. > -LC.
losk (Ru.) ‘gloss, lustre’. > -LC.
luce (Sc.) ‘brightness’.
lùchar (G.) ‘light’.
luisne (G.) ‘flame, flash’.
lus (G.) ‘plant’.
lustre (Fr.) ‘shine, glow’.
lux (Lat.) ‘light, splendour, brightness’.
Luz (Heb.), an alternative name for Beth-el.
luz (Port.) ‘light’.
lychnos (Gr.) ‘light, lamp’.
lygdos (Gr.) ‘dazzling white stone’.
lyge (Gr.) ‘shadow, darkness, gloom (smoke)’.
lyke (Gr.) ‘obs. light’, later leuko, as Lat. luceo, lux.
lykt (Nor.) ‘lantern, lamp, light’.
lys (Nor.) ‘light, glare, candle’.
malkos (Lith.) ‘firewood’. MLC > BLC
meleg (Hung.) ‘warm, hot’.
myelkat (Ru.) ‘to flash, gleam, glisten’. > BLC.
palace (E.) 'an elite residence', probably a place where a beacon was maintained.
phlego (Gr.) ‘set on fire, burn up’; phlegetho ‘to burn, scorch, burn up, blaze, blaze up, be in flames, be inflamed, burn, glow’; Phlegra (Gr.) ‘a plain in Thrace famous for its underground fires’.
phlogisein (Gr.) ‘to set on fire’.
phloks (Gr.) ‘flame, blaze’.
place (E.) probably 'a place where a beacon was maintained'.
plage (Fr.) ‘beach’ (a coastal hunting reserve).
plaukas (Lith.) ‘hair’.
plikynti (Lith.) ‘to scald; to make bald, as in scalding a pig’.
polish (E.) ''a smooth glossy reflective surface'.
selkea (Fin.) ‘clear, bright’.
shal’he’vet (Heb.) ‘flame’.
shkelqej (Alb.) ‘shine, glitter, glow’. > CLC
smalkes (Lith.) ‘fumes’.
valaista (Fin.) ‘lighting’; valoisa ‘bright’.
valke (Fin.) ‘brilliance’; valkeaitalic text ‘fire, white’; välkkya ‘gleam, glitter’.
vilkkua (Fin.) ‘blink, twinkle’.
wolk (Du.) ‘cloud’.

5.d Further compounds of BL, CL etc. with D, T
baltas (Lith.) ‘white’.
billet (E.) ‘firewood’.
blàth (G.) ‘flower, blossom, foliage, fruit, colour’.
blàth (G.) ‘warm, white’.
blood (E.) 'the red substance which circulates round the body'.
blyednay (Ru.) ‘pale, wan, white’.
caldera (Cat.) ‘cauldron, boiler’.
calid (Cat.) ‘warm’.
cauldron (E.) 'a large iron pot hung over a fire'. Lat. calere 'to be hot'.
cloud (E.) 'fog, mist, smoke'.
cold (E.) 'lacking in heat'. Severe cold burns like fire.
eld (Sw.) ‘fire’.
geilt (G.) ‘wild man or woman living in woods or deserts (a hunter)’.
gladit (Ru.) ‘to polish’; vaglazhivat ‘to smooth, polish’.
gleed (Sc.) ‘a spark’.
gleet (Sc.) ‘to shine’.
gleid (Sc.) ‘burning coal’.
glitre (Nor.) ‘glitter, sparkle’.
glitter (E.) 'to twinkle, sparkle'.
gloed (Du.) ‘glare, blaze, ardour, fervour, glow’.
helotta (Fin.) ‘shine’.
ild (Nor.) ‘fire’.
ilidh (G.) ‘defined place (beacon site)’.
kiilto (Fin.) ‘luster, gloss’.
lady (E.) ‘a woman who tended a fire’.
lityeynya (Ru.) ‘foundry’. > -LD.
lydyti (Lith.) ‘smelt, melt down (metals)’.
lyeto (Ru.) ‘summer’; alyet ‘to redden, glow’; alyen ‘deer, hart, stag’. > -LD.
lyod (Ru.) ‘ice’. > -LD.
melde (Nor.) ‘to notify’.
mild (E.) ‘slightly hot, not cold’.
miltos (Gr.) ‘red earth, red ochre, ruddle’. MBLD > BLD.
plath (G.) ‘flash, momentary glance, beam of light, volume of smoke or flame’.
plathadh (G.) ‘beam of light; volume of smoke’.
plot (Sc.) ‘scald, burn’.
polttaa (Fin.) ‘burn’.
scald (E.) ‘to burn with boiling water’.
sgald (G.) ‘to scald’.
šildyti (Lith.) ‘warm, heat’; šylis ‘thaw’; šiltas ‘warm’;
smelt (E.) MBLD > BLD.
smelte (Nor.) ‘melt, smelt’.
smoulder (E.) MBLD > BLD.
sultan (Ar.) He controlled a local beacon system.
svilti (Lith.) ‘to burn a little bit’. > ML > BL.
swelter (E.) SW > W > MhLD > BLD.
tsa’lot (Heb.) ‘to grill, roast’. > CLD.
velt (Du.) ‘open land beyond a village (hunting grounds)’.
yishta’il (Ar.) ‘glow, burn’. > CL
zalatoy (Ru.) ‘golden’; cf salo ‘fat, grease’.

5.e Further compounds of BL, CL etc. with L.
lily (E.) a white flower with flame-like petals.
Lulach, King of Scotland, a fool with white hair who was predestined to die after ruling for a short period.
lulezoj (Alb.) ‘bloom, blossom, flower’.
palella (Fin.) ‘to be cold’. Cold also burns.
pilali (Skr.) ‘pepper’.

5.f Further compounds of BL, CL etc. with R.
blaor (G.) ‘cry, shout’. *or ‘fire’
blàr (G.) ‘field, plain’. A place where people gathered in response to a beacon.
blare (E.) 'to roar, make a loud noise (send a signal)'. To light a beacon.
càileireachd (G.) ‘cremation of the dead’.
calor (Cat.) ‘warmth, heat’.
clear (E.) 'pure, bright'.
colour (E.) From its structure the original colour was red.
enlleurnar (Cat.) ‘to glare, dazzle’.
flare (E.) 'to blaze up; to burn with a glaring unsteady light'.
fleuren: opfleuren (Du.) ‘brighten up’.
florir (Cat.) ‘to blossom, flourish’.
flourice (Sc.) ‘iron strike-a-light’.
fluris (Sc.) ‘red’.
glare (E.) 'a dazzling light'.
glorie (Du.) ‘lustre, splendour’.
glory (E.) 'splendour; burst of sunlight; the ring of light around the moon'.
klar (Nor.) ‘clear, bright’.
klaren: opklaren (Du.) ‘clear up, brighten up’.
kleuren (Du.) ‘blush’.
leirion (Gr.) ‘white lily’.
lord (E.) 'fire guardian'; AS. hlaford.
luire (Fr.) ‘to shine’.
palor (E.), perhaps *or ‘fire’.
pillar (E.) From its structure a support for a fire or beacon.

6 Simple compounds of primary roots with R to give BR, CR etc.
åre (Nor.) ‘open hearth’.
arrow (E.) 'a weapon which flew as fast as a signal from a fire'.
astrum (Lat.), aster (Gr.) ‘star’. StR > CR.
bairinn (G.) ‘firebrand’.
bar (Du.) ‘barren tract of land (hunting ground)’.
bar (Du.) ‘biting cold’.
bero (Bas.) 'heat'.
berry (E.) 'a fruit as round and red as a fire'.
bior-fuinn (G.) ‘landmark, beacon’.
bor (E.) ‘cattle pen’.
breo (G.) ‘fire, flame’.
brionnag (G.) ‘to glitter’.
càir (G.) ‘red blaze’.
caoir (G.) ‘flash, firebrand, blaze of fire’.
caor (G.) ‘red blaze, mass of flame’.
carr (G.) 'scald'; also 'spear'.
cear (G.) ‘stag, roe, hart’.
ceara (G.) ‘blood-coloured, red’.
céir (G.), cire (Fr.) ‘wax’.
cera (Lat.) ‘wax’.
char (E.) 'to burn'.
chariyga (Ar.) ‘fire’.
cherry (E.) 'a small red fruit, like a fire'.
cherub (Heb. k'rub) ‘winged creature with human face, a celestial spirit’. Fire.
cori (Hind.) ‘St John’s wort’.
coure (Cat.) ‘to cook, bake’.
djerr (Alb.) ‘waste, barren’. > CR
dru (Alb.) ‘wood’. > CR
dzhjar (Ru.) ‘heat’. > CR.
eirene (Gr.) ‘peace’ (enforced within a hunting forest).
erre (Bas). 'to burn, bake, roast; to smoke'.
eskra (Ru.) ‘sparkle, glimmer’. > CR.
faire (G.) ‘keep watch at night, guard’. A watchman always had a fire.
fairy (E). 'a hunter'.
far (E.) 'distant'; as far as one could see the light of a fire.
farach (G.) ‘mallet’, used to stun or kill animals.
ferrum (Lat.) 'iron': a metal produced by smelting.
feur, feòir (G.) ‘grass’ (fired by hunters).
fir (Sc.) The wood was used in splinters for torches.
fire (E.) 'the heat and light of burning'.
fireach (G.) ‘hill’ (beacon site).
four (Fr.) ‘oven’.
fry (E.) 'to cook in hot fat in an open pan; burn, scorch'.
fuir (G.) ‘sign, token’.
fuireann (G.) ‘crowd, multitude’.
fuireas (G.) ‘feast’.
fur (G.) ‘thief, robber (hunter)’.
fyr (Nor.) ‘fire; light, lighthouse’.
fyre (Nor.) ‘light; vb. to stoke’.
gar (Ru.) ‘smell of burning’.
garyet (Ru.) ‘to burn, glow’.
geroy (Ru.) ‘hero (hunter)’.
garai (Lith.) ‘fumes’.
geàrr (G.) ‘cut, carve, slice; describe a circle’ (drive deer).
geir (G.) ‘tallow, grease’.
gertsog (Ru.) ‘duke’.
goir (G.) ‘cry, call’.
goort (Ru.) ‘drove, herd, flock’.
gor (G.) ‘light, heat’.
gryet (Ru.) ‘to heat, warm’.
guspira (Cat.) ‘sparkle, spark’.
gyerb (Ru.) ‘coat of arms’.
hær (Nor.) ‘army, host (of hunters)’.
hair (E.). Used as kindling?
harras (Fin.) ‘warm, fervent’.
harz (Ger.) ‘resin, gum’.
höyry (Fin.) ‘steam, vapour’.
huore (Chin.) ‘burning hot’.
huuru (Fin.) ‘vapour, steam’.
ira (Cat.) ‘anger, rage, wrath, ire’.
iur (G.) ‘plunder, bloodshed (hunting)’.
kaars (Du.) ‘wax candle’.
käristä (Fin.) ‘sizzle’.
käry (Fin.) ‘smoky smell’.
keras (Lith.) ‘bush, shrub’ (used as fuel).
kerinos (Gr.) ‘waxen’.
kerpe (Lith.) ‘lichen’ (used as kindling).
kerze (Ger.) ‘candle’.
kirkas (Fin.) ‘clear, bright’.
korea (Fin.) ‘showy, bright’.
ksros (Gr.) ‘dry, parched’. > CR
kuras (Lith.) ‘fuel, firing’; kurenti ‘to heat’; kurti ‘to kindle a fire’.
maral (Ru.) ‘stag’. > BR.
maroz (Ru.) ‘frost’. > BR.
menora (Heb.) ‘lamp’. With *or ‘light’.
ner (Heb.) 'candle'.
ngroh (Alb.) ‘to warm, heat’.
or (Fr.) ‘gold’.
or (Heb.) ‘light’. See also menora.
orkaite (Lith.) ‘oven’. *or ‘fire’.
oria (Cat.) ‘border, fringe (hunting forest)’.
pa’ra (Heb.) ‘cow’.
par (Ru.) ‘steam, vapour’; atparivanye ‘steaming’; rasparivat ‘to steam, stew’.
parom (Ru.) ‘ferry’.
pazhor (Ru.) ‘fire, conflagration’.
peeri (Per.) ‘the watcher at the gates of paradise’.
peperi (Gr.) ‘pepper’.
per (Ru.) ‘banquet, feast’.
perveloj (Alb.) ‘to scald’.
phare (Fr.) ‘lighthouse’; Pharos an island in the Bay of Alexandria where a famous lighthouse was built.
piper (Lat.) ‘pepper’.
pipiru (O. Slav.) ‘pepper’.
piri-piri (Bantu) ‘pepper).
poivre (Fr.) ‘pepper’.
poro (Fin.) ‘reindeer’.
porphura (Gr.) ‘bright red’. A duplicate of pur ‘fire’.
porren (Du.) ‘to poke the fire’.
pur (Gr.) ‘fire’.
purpura (Lat.) ‘purple’.
pyeryets (Ru.) ‘pepper’.
pyre (E.) 'a pile of combustibles for burning a dead body'.
sear (E.) 'to burn, scorch'.
seiros (Gr.) ‘hot, scorching’. Sirius or Kuon, the Dog star.
sha’rav (Heb.) ‘intense heat’.
shurré (Alb.) ‘urine’.
skjær (Nor.) ‘gleam, glow, glimmer’.
skyr (Sc.) ‘to shine’.
speur (G.) ‘star’.
sphere (E.) ‘field, realm, round object’.
spor (G.) ‘flint, tinder, flint or quartz strike-a-light’.
star (E.) 'a bright heavenly body'. > CR
stear (Gr.) ‘suet’.
tar (E.) 'Pitch, a dark viscous substance derived from wood, coal etc.' > CR
thero (Gr.) ‘to warm, heat’.
tòir (G.) ‘pursuit, chase, hunt’.
tor (E.) ‘beacon hill’.
toradh (G.)‘baking’.
torrar (Cat.) ‘to parch, toast’.
torrere (Lat.) ‘to parch, roast’.
torrid (E.) ‘warm’.
ur (G.) 'fire'.
uro (Lat.) ‘to burn, destroy by fire, consume; scorch, parch; pinch with cold’.
var (Ru.) ‘tar, wax’.
varet (Ru.) ‘to boil, cook, poach, brew’.
veri (Fin.) ‘blood’.
vora (Cat.) ‘edge, border, fire-land (hunting forest)’.
vuur (Du.) ‘fire’; vuurpoel ‘blaze’.
whore (E.) Like the virgin she tended the fire.
zhar (Ru.) ‘embers, heat, ardour, fervour’.
zgarat (Ru.) ‘to burn up, be consumed’.
zhara (Ru.) ‘summer’.
zhir (Ru.) ‘fat, grease, suet, tallow’.
zjarr (Alb.) ‘fire’.

6.a Further compounds of BR, CR etc. with B etc.
astraph (Gr.) ‘flash of lightning’. StRF > CRB.
bagravyet (Ru.) ‘to redden’; bagrovayi ‘blood-red’ (krov ‘blood’).
brew (E.) 'to prepare by infusion or boiling'.
carbo (Lat.) ‘coal, charcoal’.
carpe (Sp.) ‘hornbeam’. Very good firewood.
cearb (G.) ‘cutting, slaughtering’.
craobh (G.) ‘tree’ (fuel): craobh-sgaoil or sgall-craobh ‘to blaze, spread abroad’.
crap (E.): hot stuff in a cold climate.
cyrafol or cyrawel (W.) ‘mountain ash berries’ (used as kindling).
derva (Lith.) ‘resinous pinewood; gum, resin, pitch, tar’.
durpes (Lith.) ‘peat, turf’.
furvus (Lat.) ‘burnt; dark, black, swarthy’.
grabyogh (Ru.) ‘robbery, plundering, pillage (hunting)’.
kärventää (Fin.) ‘scorch, singe’.
rubor (Cat.) ‘blush’.
s’raifa (Heb.) ‘fire, blaze’.
shkrepetime (Alb.) ‘flash’.
streif (Nor.) ‘gleam, ray’. (E. strife = ‘hunt’.)
terebinthos (Gr.) ‘turpentine tree, its resin’.
terva (Fin.) ‘tar’.
tirpti (Lith.) ‘to melt, thaw’; tirpdyti ‘to smelt, melt down’.
tørke (Nor.) ‘dry’.
torv (Nor.) ‘peat’.
turba (Lat.) ‘turmoil, hubbub, uproar (a hunt or round-up)’.
turbe (Gr.) ‘disorder, throng, bustle (a hunt or round-up)’.
turf (E.) ‘sods or peat used as fuel’.

6.b Further compounds of BR, CR etc. with M
aroma (Gr.) ‘spice’.
arun (Hind.) ‘sun, red glow’.
barm (E.) ‘yeast’ (alive, like fire?)
brand (E.) ‘a burning branch or torch’.
branden (Du.) ‘to glow, burn’.
brann (G.) ‘firebrand, burning coal; woman’.
brann (Nor.) ‘fire, conflagration’; brannfakkel ‘torch, firebrand’.
brenne (Nor.) ‘burn, scorch, sear’.
brindis (Cat.) ‘toast’.
brionnag (G.) ‘glitter’; brio (It.) ‘verve, brilliance’.
brown (E.) ‘burnt’.
brune (Fr) ‘polished’.
brunyir (Cat.) ‘to brighten, shine, polish’.
burn (E.) 'to consume or injure by fire or great heat; to be on fire'.
burnish (E.) 'to polish'.
carmine (E.) 'red'; the colour of fire.
carnation (E.) 'red'; the colour of fire.
cèarn (G.) ‘corner, quarter, region (deer forest)’.
charme (Fr.) ‘hornbeam’. It makes very good firewood.
corona (Lat.) 'a bright ring around the sun or moon; hence, a crown'.
cremare (Lat.) ‘to burn’.
cremate (E.) 'to burn'
crimson (E.) 'red'; the colour of fire.
crionach (G.) ‘brushwood, firewood’.
crown (E.) 'a circular head ornament resembling flames or fire'.
espurna (Cat.) ‘spark, sparkle’.
fervor (Cat.) ‘ardour, fervour’.
forn (Cat.) ‘oven’.
frondre (Cat.) ‘to melt’.
furn (Ar.) ‘oven’.
furnace (E.) 'a structure within which great heat is produced'.
garm (Hind.) ‘hot, warm’.
giùirne (G.) ‘rocky hillock on side or top of mountain’ (beacon site).
giùran (G.) ‘fennel’. The hollow stalks were used as fire-sticks.
gorn (G.) ‘ember, firebrand’.
grenzen (Du.) ‘limit, border (hunting ground)’.
harn (Ger.) ‘urine’.
hornbeam (E.), a tree. Its wood burns very well.
iron (E.) 'a metal produced by smelting'.
keramos (Gr.) ‘potter’s earth, fire-clay.
kiran (Hind.) ‘ray of light, sunbeam’
krem (Ru.) ‘fortress’.
kryemyen (Ru.) ‘flint’.
marmairo (Gr.) ‘to flash, sparkle, glisten, gleam’. > BR.
orina, orins (pl.) (Cat.) ‘urine’.
prune (E.) 'plum; a small round red fruit resembling a fire'.
ramaas (Ar.) ‘ashes, cinder’; representing BRM?
serenus (Lat.) ‘clear’.
sharn (Sc) ‘cow-dung’. Used as fuel in some remote parts, notably Wyre, in Orkney 'whaur the coo shites fire'.
socarrimar (Cat.) ‘to scorch’.
sprank (Du.) ‘spark’. SPRNg > BRM.
spruan (G.) ‘brushwood, firewood’.
steairn (G.) ‘roaring fire’. > CRM
stjerne (Nor.) ‘star’.
urina (Lat.) ‘urine’.
urine (E.) 'liquid waste produced by the kidneys', hot stuff in a cold climate.
varme (Nor.) ‘warmth, heat’.
vermell (Cat.) ‘red’.
vermillon (E.)
warm (E.)

6.c Further compounds of BR, CR etc. with C, S etc.
abrusar (Cat.) ‘burn, parch’. BR.
airis (G.) ‘charcoal, firebrand’.
amarussein (Gr.) ‘to sparkle, twinkle, glance’. With euphonic A.
arci (Hind.) ‘flame, light’.
arc-light (E.) ‘a very bright light made by passing electricity through a gas’.
argos (Gr.) ‘shining, bright, glistening, swift’. > -RC.
arsus (Lith.) ‘furious, violent, fierce’. -RC.
apricus (Lat.) ‘sunny’.
ba’rak (Heb.) ‘lightning’.
bark (E.): used for torches, esp. birch-bark.
birch (E.): the bark was used for torches and, distilled to give pitch.
braise (E.) 'to stew or roast in a closed vessel'.
braise (Fr.) ‘charcoal, embers’.
brase (Nor.) ‘fry, frizzle, cook’.
brass (E.). A shiny metal used in mirrors, lanterns to reflect light.
brassa (Cat.) ‘live coal, embers’.
brassein (Gr.) ‘to boil’.
brazier (E.) ‘a vessel or tray for hot coals’.
bright (E.) 'shining, full of light'.
brosdan (G.) ‘little sticks to light a fire; a match’.
brushwood (E.): perhaps 'branches and twigs used to make a fire'.
chris (Gr.) ‘to anoint with oil’.
chrisua (Gr.) ‘unguent, oil’.
church (E.): originally a beacon site.
cirag (Hind.) ‘lamp, light’.
coruscare (Lat.) ‘to flash, gleam, sparkle’.
cresset (E.) ‘a fire basket carried on a pole’.
crispare (Lat.) ‘to frizzle’.
cross (E.) 'A design or symbol made of two crossed lines'. Bronze Age urns in England were marked with a cross.1 The original meaning is related to fire.
cruisie (Sc.) ‘a double-pan oil lamp’.
dreug (G.) ‘fireball, bonfire’. > CRC.
écorce (Fr.) ‘bark (of tree)’.
farge (Nor.) ‘colour’.
freeze (E.), Du. vriezen ‘extreme cold’. Extreme cold produces a burning sensation.
frizzle (E.) 'to fry, scorch'.
furze (E.) 'gorse, a prickly plant which makes good kindling'.
fyrste (Nor.) ‘prince’.
garas (Lith.) ‘steam, vapour’.
graze (E.): hunters burned grass so that new shoots would attract game.
grios (G.) ‘heat’.
griosach (G.) ‘fire without flame, hot embers’.
gris (G.) ‘fire’.
ibrik (Alb.) ‘kettle’.
kaarse (Du.) ‘candle’.
käristää (Fin.) ‘frizzle, fry’.
karstis (Lith.) ‘intense heat’.
kers (Du.) ‘cherry’.
kirk (E.): originally a beacon site.
kirkas (Fin.) ‘bright, clear’.
koorts (Du.) ‘fever’.
krasnay (Ru.) ‘bright, fine’.
krasnyet (Ru.) ‘to blush, redden’.
kroes (Du.) ‘frizzled, crisped’.
krosnis (Lith.) ‘oven, furnace’.
margat (Ru.) ‘to blink, wink’. > BRC.
mirgeti (Lith.) ‘to twinkle, shimmer, glimmer, flicker, sparkle, glitter’.
myertsanye (Ru.) ‘blinking, twinkling’. > BRC.
ndriçoj (Alb.) ‘to lighten, illuminate’. > CRC
parch (E.) 'to dry, using heat'.
parish (E.) 'an area around a central beacon'.
perach (Heb.) ‘flower’.
porker (E.): was the pig hunted with fire? A pan-European word.
prach (Ru.) ‘ashes, dust’.
preis (Sc.) ‘heat of battle’.
prekat (Sc.) ‘candle’.
prijken (Du.) ‘shine, glitter, blaze’.
purge (E.) ‘to clarify’.
rausti (Lith.) ‘to become red, blush’.
réisg (G.) to smoke dry (meat or fish)’.
riste (Nor.) ‘grill, broil’, from rist ‘grate in oven’.
roast (E.) 'to cook over a fire'.
rok, rook (Du.) ‘smoke’.
rose (E.) 'a red flower, seen to resemble a burning fire'.
rostir (Cat.) ‘to roast, broil’.
rug (E.) ‘snug, warm’.
rug (E.) ‘watchman’.
rukti (Lith.) ‘to smoke, burn’.
rush (E.). Peeled and used as a taper or a wick.
rusk (E.) ‘dried bread’.
ryke (Nor.) ‘smoke’.
ryskus (Lith.) ‘bright’.
scorch (E.) 'to burn slightly'.
spark (E.) 'a short-lived burning particle'.
sprokkel (Du.) ‘dry sticks’. SPRK > BRC.
sriesti (Lith.) ‘shine, gleam’; rausti ‘to become red’.
torch (E.) 'anything that burns and can be held in the hand to make a light'. Used also of flowers. > CRC
tørke (Nor.) ‘dry’.
varken (Du.): the pig was perhaps hunted with fire.
virgo (Lat.) ‘virgin’. Like the harlot and the whore she tended the fire.
virtsa (Fin.) ‘urine’.
yarki (Ru.) ‘bright, brilliant, clear, dazzling’. > CRC.
yarki (Ru.) ‘bright, dazzling’.
zarija (Lith.) ‘live coal, ember’. > CRC.

6.d Further compounds of BR, CR etc. with D, T
ardai (Lith.) ‘fire grate, hearth’. -RD, perhaps from CRD.
ardeo (Lat.) ‘to be on fire, burn, blaze, flash, glow, sparkle, shine’.
ardor (Cat.) ‘great heat’.
boorden (Du.) ‘edge, rim, border’.
bradhadair (G.) ‘large fire, fuel, kindling’.
braidseal (G.) ‘bonfire’.
bràight (G.) ‘enormous fire, bonfire, fire lit by Druids on top of the mountains’.
breath (E.) 'life'; related to the spirit and the ideas associating it with smoke.
broth (E.) 'soup, made of a variety of ingredients cooked over a fire'.
broth (G.) ‘fire’.
bruth (G.) ‘heat, anything red-hot’.
bruthan (G.) ‘faggot’.
cardinal (E.) 'red'. The colour of fire (or of blood).
cèard (G.) ‘smith working with cast metals’.
court (E.): perhaps an elite centre where 'fire' was kept.
drite (Alb.) ‘light’, shndrit ‘shine, glitter’. > BRD.
enardir (Cat.) ‘to kindle’.
erret (Alb.) ‘dark, black’.
firth, frith (G.) ‘deer park’.
fort (E.), a place where a fire was maintained.
fruit (E.) 'round red objects like apples, plums, cherries'.
garth (G.) ‘enclosure’.
girdle (E.) ‘an encircling object; a metal plate for baking’; perhaps originally a hearth.
grioth (G.) ‘sun (large fire)’.
haard (Du.) ‘hearth, stove’.
hart (E.) ‘deer’. Hunted with fire?
hearth (E.) ‘an arrangement of stones to contain a domestic fire’.
herd (Ger.) ‘hearth’.
kjerte (Nor.) ‘candle, taper, torch’.
ndrit, ndris (Alb.) ‘shine, glitter, sparkle’. > CRD
port (E.) ‘harbour’, marked by a navigational beacon.
ray (E.) 'a narrow beam of light'. Related to Lat. radiusi ‘rod’.
red (E.) ‘the colour of fire’.
riodh (G.) ‘beam or ray of light’.
roet (Du.) ‘smut, soot’.
ruithean (G.) ‘red hot, blazing’.
srad (G.) ‘spark of fire’.
strijd (Du.) ‘fight, battle, contest, struggle’. StRD > CRD.
virti (Lith.) ‘seethe’.
virti, virinti (Lith.) ‘to boil, cook, bubble, seethe’.
vrucht (Du.) 'fruit', round red objects named for fire.
yard (E.) ‘an enclosure (for a fire)’.
zereti (Lith.) ‘sparkle, twinkle, glitter’; zeruoti ‘to shine, glitter, sparkle’.

6.e Further compounds of BR, CR etc. with L
brillant (Cat.) ‘bright’.
brillar (Cat.) ‘to shine, glisten’.
brilliant (E.) ‘bright, like a fire’.
broil (E.) ‘to cook over hot coals, to grill’.
coral (E.) ‘red colour, like fire’.
dreall (G.) ‘blaze, torch’. > CRL
dreallsach (G.) ‘blazing fire’. > CRL
earl (E.) ‘a nobleman or officer of state’; A-S. eorl ‘warrior, hero (hunter)’.
escarlata (Cat.) ‘scarlet’.
ferula (Lat.) The French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656-1708) found the giant fennel growing in Skinosa, a small deserted island near Naxos. He describes the stalk as about five feet high and three inches thick, with knots and branches at intervals of about ten inches, the whole being covered with a tolerably hard rind. ‘This stalk is filled with a white pith, which, being very dry, catches fire just like a wick; the fire keeps alight perfectly in the stalk and consumes the pith only gradually, without damaging the rind; hence people use this plant to carry fire from one place to another; our sailors laid in a supply of it. This custom is of great antiquity, and may serve to explain a passage in Hesiod, who, speaking of the fire which Prometheus stole from heaven, says that he carried it away in a stalk of fennel.’2
girl (E.): another name for a young female who tended the household fire.
harlot (E.) 'a woman devoted to sex'. She also tended the fire.
llar (Cat.) ‘home’.
lluir (Cat.) ‘to shine, glow’.
marile (Gr.) ‘embers of charcoal’. > BRL.
péril (Fr.), Lat. periculum ‘risk, danger’, from perior ‘to pass through’. Perhaps from the fact that metals were purified by being passed through fire. Perillus, a legendary Athenian smith, made a brazen bull and was the first to be roasted to death in it.
purl (Sc.) ‘dried dung used as fuel’.
rull (Cat.) ‘curl, frizzle’.
straal (Du.) ‘ray, beam of light, flash’. StRL > CRL.
stråle (Nor.) ‘ray, beam’.
strele (Lith.) ‘arrow’. > CRL.
stryela (Ru.) ‘arrow, dart’. > CRL.
thryallis (Gr.) ‘wick’. > CRL

6.f Further compounds of BR, CR etc. with R.
fuirearach (G.) ‘attentive, vigilant’.
fuirireadh (G.) ‘parching corn’.

SMcGregor 10.01.2010

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