Chapter 6: A Long List of CR Words

Car, ‘a wanderword of uncertain provenance.'

In the three previous chapters we have been playing with short wordlists. Using RB as the root we tracked the robe to the seal-skin cloak fashionable in Germany at least two thousand years ago, and identified the original robber as a northern seal-hunter. We might have been able to do this without Radical technology as in this case there are historical clues. The evidence of the RB list served to confirm the link and to provide further ideas about the evolution of clothing and other topics. In the case of the Lame King there were no other clues of any kind and the lexical evidence provided by the LM short list was decisive. The LM word-list, though limited, was very varied and produced an unexpected view of a Palaeolithic hunting technique which made a considerable contribution to language and then vanished without other trace. After this discovery it was disappointing to discover that the Grail was a modest piece of medieval kitchen equipment. Had there been any greater depths to the object, as named, we would have found them.

These three short lists provided answers to our questions as well as a lot of peripheral information but they gave us no insights into language as a whole. The next investigation is quite different: for the CR long list represents a complete, discrete sector of language. The six essential consonants of the TEC - B, M, C, D, L and R - provide a reliable structure for almost every word in every European language. As we saw in the first chapter, they also give 36 disyllabic or double roots (figure 1.2) of which one is CR. If we imagine all the words in Europe making up a round deep pie cut up into 36 portions, the CR list is one of these portions, reaching from the crust on the top down to the pastry at the bottom.

The potential of the CR long list was shown right away by the word car. Was it a primitive sledge, a horse-drawn vehicle, a piece of rolling-stock, a string of beads, a family saloon, your dearest friend, none of these or all of these? The correct answer is that a car has been all of these things and many more. The native Gaelic of Scotland, a country where tribal deer drives were still organised in 1715 and where the last wolf survived until 1743,1 has at least fifty distinct meanings for this one word.

  • càr ‘friend, relation; mossy plain, fen’.
  • car ‘twist, bend, turn; winding, meandering; trick, fraud; way, course; bar of music; motion, movement; revolution; string of beads, pearls, etc.; contact, neighbourhood; direction; throw; circular motion; care; plait, fold’.
  • càr ‘cart, car, raft for carrying things on’.
  • càr ‘care; jaw; fish; stone; scab, mange, itch; chariot’.
  • car ‘brittle’.
  • càra ‘akin’.
  • càra ‘leg, haunch; jaw; hog’s cheek’.
  • carach ‘cunning, sly, wily, tricking; meandering, whirling, circling; changeable, unstable; acute’.
  • càraidh ‘pair, couple, brace; twins; married couple; defences’.
  • càrr ‘itch, mange; rocky shelf; a projecting part of a rock; scald; scurvy; leprosy; sledge, dray, chariot; flesh of a whale or seal’.

Irish also has a range of themes:

  • carr ‘mouth, face, grimace; a rough surface or skin, scum, scab, scurvey’.
  • carr ‘spear, lance, pike-staff, shaft, haft, cross-beam of a harp, fig. a harp’.
  • carr ‘car, dray, wagon, sliding car or sleigh, “horse” or frame’.

To investigate the contents of the CR segment of the pie I assembled a word-list based on the roots CR, GR, SR, HR and (vowel)-R - in other words, all the consonantal variants of TEC 3 combined with R. I included a handful of words which rely on the old P/Q and L/R equivalences (discussed in the first chapter) which seemed to be of particular interest.

Some eight hundred CR words were found in European and a few Asian languages and allocated to nine categories. These categories seem to be self-evident. Others could no doubt be used and might change the argument to some extent but in most cases there is little doubt that these categories represent a number of CR words. The main uncertainty is the allocation of words between hunters and farmers but the Gaelic words by definition were used by hunters and we can assume that other words of similar meaning in other languages were as well. Since the hunting lexicon came first, by a long way, it is logical to believe that farmers borrowed from it when they needed to - we found a few cases of hunting names used for new items in the LM list. Rounding-up and butchery were important activities in farming communities but farmers used words unchanged from the preceding or contemporary hunting culture. There was in any case no abrupt change: hunters began to grow crops and farmers continued to hunt in their spare time. CR words which are specific to farming are few in number and assorted in sense which suggests that the CR root was used mainly by hunters.

Categories of the CR long list.

1. Fire An old category.
2. Symmetry An appreciation of symmetry and balance is already apparent in Acheulian handaxes made by Homo erectusin the Early Palaeolithic. Symmetry balances a stone implement in use and makes it more accurate as a projectile. The words in this category show us the concept expanding to embrace many other aspects of symmetry: the two halves of a necklace, the jaw, the beloved other. The symmetrical car is often heart-shaped. E. pair is the P cognate.

3. Hunting These words suggest that hunters were the unmarried men of an extended family and that they hunted by driving animals into an ambush or trap where large numbers might be killed (carnage). Very little imagination is needed to envisage animals being driven into a narrow opening. The original car may have been a symmetrical cleft. Boggy ground also served as a trap. Sp. cerca gives lexical support to the prehistoric use of hurdles to direct and contain driven animals, both wild and domesticated. The art of war got its lexicon, its weapons, and much else from hunting, but words relating to warfare are scarce here.

4. Farming As discussed above, farmers invented very few CR words. Even corn and grain are liable to date to the Stone Age. But ploughing was a definite novelty. The first certain sign of the traction plough is in the Bronze Age. Clark noted that before oxen were used for wheeled transport they were used to pull ploughs2. Various other animals - horses, reindeer and dogs - pulled the earlier sledges from which the plough and harrow evolved.

5. Authority Hunters accepted control but were resistant to authority.

6. Transport The parallel meanings and evolution of the word suggest that the car, a cognate of E. pair, was a symmetrical A-frame sledge. Prehistoric art shows sledges made of two poles fitted with cross-bars for the luggage and a T-bar at the front for traction. This was supplied by two oxen or, in more marginal areas, by horse, reindeer, cow, dog or human agency. This in itself is enough to suggests a Palaeolithic development.

The ‘quadrilateral signs’ in various painted caves may be designs for prototype hurdles or sledges.3 At Lascaux (Dordogne) these designs are dated to c.17,000 BP. At Castillo (Santander) there are pictures dated to c.14,000 BP which might be double-runner sledges or some kind of trap. Breuil believed, and Clark thought it possible, that the barred triangles on rock-paintings of the late bronze age, in the Spanish province of Badajoz, represent sliding vehicles4. These paintings also show carts with two parallel sides, cross-spars and two wheels and at least one four-wheeled wagon.

The addition of a single wheel to the A-frame converted it into a wheel-barrow while the addition of two wheels made it into a cart. The addition of four wheels to a secondary raft or trailer created a wagon, with the original A-frame persisting as a coupling mechanism. Sledges continued in use until quite recently to move bulky and heavy loads of wood, hay, and peat and in coal-mines to move coal. The hearse used to transport the dead is a CR word which goes back to the A-frame sledge used to transport dead animals. This line of evolution, both linguistic and mechanical, continues to the present day. The car is also linked to boats and to farming equipment. The harrow is an adaptation of an A-frame sledge.
Words for smaller containers are liable to be earlier than those for wheeled vehicles or shipping since baskets and leather bags were attached to sledges to contain particulate loads.

Boats date back to the Mesolithic - the dugout canoe from Perth, Scotland, was found under carse clay, 20 feet below ground level. The earliest boats were similar to sledges: the Swedish attja, a type of hunting-sledge, was made by hollowing out a section of a tree trunk.5 The skin boat has a circumpolar distribution, from Greenland to England and was probably also early. Clark proposed that they were first used for hunting sea-mammals and for fishing, as shown by the appearance of fish-bones in Mesolithic middens6 The lexical evidence suggests that sledges came before boats, as one would expect if northern Europeans migrated west from Central Asia. Ship-building technology and names moved around with ships.

7. Circular motion

8. Irrational activity. Long before the invention of the wheel, people danced in a circle singing lascivious songs in honour of the Great Whore as they moved sunwise in imitation of the movements of hunters encircling the deer. In 1282 the village maidens were still singing the same obscene songs as they danced at Easter in the churchyard at Inverkeithing, in Lowland Scotland. Singing and music (drums, pipes) were ways of maintaining contact with and passing information to other members of the group who had passed out of sight, and were then also used in the attempt to maintain contact with and pass information to invisible supernatural powers. Hence the carol.

9. Card and chart. This is a recent addition to the thesaurus. If Ir. ceart ‘rag’ reflects the ragged appearance of skin clothing, then a ceart was a small piece of leather. This describes a page of an early book which was made of parchment - the skin of calves or lambs. Thus early books were made up of small bits of leather or cearts. This offers a probable derivation for a number of CRD words referring to paper products..

10 Supernatural Beings Because they are so clearly part of the same story I have included two beings with CL names: the Indian goddess Kali and the Gaelic Cailleach. They and the Greek Keres have more than their names in common. They are all fearsome females, black of aspect, equipped with terrible fangs, who drink the blood and eat the flesh of the dead. Kali and the Cailleach are nevertheless approached not with fear but with devotion and gratitude. This is explained when we realise that the death they represent is the death of deer or other game, which was keenly desired by supplicants. The dead in all similar myths were deer or other quarry. The single eye, the black face and the wild hair support their origins as a personification of fire. The Valkyries continued this tradition in a muted but still powerful form.

Cailleach or Carlin (Scotland). The Mother Goddess or deer divinity. She was envisaged as a fair young woman and as a hag. Her imagery combines the more awesome aspects of hunting and fire, since she was originally the beacon which ruled the hunting forest. She had a single eye on her forehead which was ‘swifter than the mackerel of the ocean’, a description of a beacon signal. Her face was blue-black like ashes or charcoal. Her teeth were long, ugly and as red as rust and her hair was matted and long, like brushwood. The long red teeth are a powerful image of the deer trap which was seen as a rapacious and blood-stained mouth. Gaelic has several related words: càileireachd ‘cremation, burning of the dead’, ceal ‘female sexual parts’, ceal ‘ death; heaven’, cealach ‘fire-place’, ceall ‘burying place’, ceallach ‘war, contention, strife’, cear ‘blood, offspring, progeny’, cear ‘stag, roe, hert’, ceara ‘blood-coloured, red’, cearb ‘cutting, slaughtering’, cearr ‘wounding, cutting’ (as the Fates cut the thread of life).
Ceres phoinikopesta: the ‘ruddy-footed’ or ‘rubicond’ goddess. The Roman Mother Goddess, divinity of agriculture, known to the Greeks as Demeter. She represents birth and prosperity rather than harvesting and death, but her ruddy feet suggest that she trampled on the dead as well as on grapes. As Demeter she is shown seated with torches and a serpent, both hunting symbols.
Circe (Greece): a witch or enchantress, daughter of the Sun (so presumably a beacon), who turned the uncouth companions of Ulysses into pigs, lions and dogs. Their original names are probably puns on 'fire' words. This is a kind of inverted abduction scene.
Harpies (Greece): three demonic birds with women’s heads and sharp claws, whose names were Aello ‘wind-squall’, Ocypete ‘fast flier’ and Celaeno ‘stormy sky’. They carried off children and are shown with the souls of the dead in their claws. Their imagery is that of the wind but at one time may they may have been beacons whose signals passed through the air as fast as the wind.
Hermes (Greece) was the patron of thieves (by which we can understand hunters), herdsmen, arts and eloquence. A herm or phallic pillar was erected at stock-pens to protect the stock and ensure their fertility; stock in fact were protected by a fire.
Kali (India) is ‘as dark as a great cloud, clad in dark clothes. Her tongue is poised as if to lick. She has fearful teeth, sunken eyes, and is smiling. She wears a necklace of snakes, the half-moon rests on her forehead, she has matted hair, and is engaged in licking a corpse. Her sacred thread is a snake, and she lies on a bed of snakes. She holds a garland of fifty heads.’7 The tongue is fire, for Kali, like the Cailleach, is a cremation fire.
Ker (Greece) ‘goddess of death or fate’, in plural Keres, the Fates. In the Iliad they appear in scenes of battle or violence and control the fate of individual heroes. They were horrible black winged creatures, with large white teeth and long pointed nails. They tore corpses into pieces and drank the blood of the wounded and dead. Their garments were dyed red with human blood. The name may be Celtic.
Valkyriur or Valkyries: the twelve nymphs of Valhalla ‘the hall of the dead’, who were associated with Odin (G. aodhan ‘fire’). ‘Val’ is said to mean ‘the dead’ but Lat. valere means ‘to be strong or vigorous’ or ‘to have strength or power’, as E. halei, healthy, well, and valour which is a martial quality. Mounted on swift horses they carried drawn swords and selected those destined to die in battle. They took them to Valhalla where they served them with mead and ale in cups made of skulls. Their number and identities vary from source to source but certain of their names appear to preserve epithets of the Cailleach, which could have gone in the form of Gaelic folk tales from the Hebrides to Iceland, and then to Norway. Icelandic Gaelic reference. Some of the Gaelic parallels are very appropriate. It is not unknown for a respectful epithet to have been turned into an insult.8

  • Brynhildr - G. brionn 'pretty, comely, fair; glittering' + geilt 'wild woman; one who lives in woods and deserts'.
  • Eir - G. eur 'noble, gentle, well-born; precious, valuable'.
  • Geirahöð - G.cearr ‘wounding, cutting’ or géire 'sharp, biting'. Also in Geiravör, Geirdriful, Geirölul, Geirömul, and Geirönul. Related words include G. cear ‘blood, offspring, progeny’, cear ‘stag, roe, hert’, ceara ‘blood-coloured, red’, cearb ‘cutting, slaughtering’.
  • Geirskögul - G. ceara 'blood-coloured' + sgoch 'gash, notch, cut, slit'. See Skuld.
  • Gölli - G. gal ‘flame; kindred; warfare, battle; slaughter; valour’.
  • Hlökk - G. gloic 'foolish woman; slattern; idiot'.
  • Hrist - G. criosda ‘quick, nimble, active, smart’.
  • Hrund - G. grunnd 'hell'?
  • Kára - G. carrach 'bad-tempered'.
  • Mista- 'a black and terrible maid'. G. meisd 'rust'. The Cailleach had one rusty tooth in her head; the correct archaic meaning is evidently 'red, bloody'.
  • Radgrid - G. rath ‘prosperity, increase’, greidh ‘herd’.
  • Reginleif - G. riagh ‘snare, trap’, liomh ‘the bright polished one, the Lady’.
  • Róta - G. ruadh 'red', also ruadh 'red deer'.
  • Sangrida - *san 'to gather' and G. greidh ‘herd of deer’.
  • Skeggjöld - perhaps G. sgeig 'mock, ridicule, deride'.
  • Skuld - G. sgolt 'split, cleft' referring to the goddess's vulva or a deer trap..
  • Sveith - perhaps G. suith 'soot'; G. suitheach 'sooty, black-faced' is entirely right.
  • Thrudi - G. truid ‘field of battle; strife, battle; tidy neat female’.

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER 4: CR LIST

CATEGORIES (801 words) These categories have been discussed above.

1. Fire (18 words)
2. Symmetry (60 words)
3. Hunting (400 words) 3.a. The hunt; 3.b. The hunters; 3.c. The hunting grounds; 3.d. Traps and ambushes; 3.e. Signalling systems; 3.f. Equipment and weapons; 3.g. The quarry; 3.h. Butchery; 3.i. The colour of blood; 3.j. Distribution of the spoils; 3.k. Complaints; 3.l. Hunger.
4. Farming (21 words)
5. Authority (7 words)
6. Transport (190 words) 6.a. Materials and techniques; 6.b. Unwheeled frames; 6.c. Smaller containers; 6.d. Wheeled vehicles; 6.e. Shipping; 6.f. Cargo; 6.g. The route
7. Circular motion (41 words)
8. Irrational activities (55 words) 8.a. Singing and dancing; 8.b. Other irrational concepts; 8.c. Personifications
9. Paper products (9 words)

1. Fire
càir (G.) ‘red blaze’.
carbo (Lat.) ‘coal, charcoal’.
cera (Lat.) ‘wax’.
chariyga (Ar.) ‘fire’.
cherub (from Heb) ‘winged creature with human face, a celestial spirit’.
cyrafol or cyrawel (W.) ‘mountain ash berries’ (used as kindling).
harras (Fin.) ‘warm, fervent’.
harz (Ger.) ‘resin, gum’.
kaars (Du.) ‘wax candle’.
käristä (Fin.) ‘sizzle’.
karstis (Lith.) ‘intense heat’.
käry (Fin.) ‘smoky smell’.
keras (Lith.) ‘bush, shrub’ (used as fuel).
kerinos (Gr.) ‘waxen’.
kerpe (Lith.) ‘lichen’ (used as kindling).
kerze (Ger.) ‘candle’.
kirkas (Fin.) ‘clear, bright’.
skyr (Sc.) ‘to shine’.

2. Symmetry
armas (Fin.) ‘dear, beloved’.
arti (Lith.) ‘near, close’.
barb (E.) ‘the beard-like jag near the point of an arrow’ (P/Q equivalence)
barbe (Fr.) ‘beard’, no doubt forked.
car (G.) ‘care’.
càr (G.) ‘jaw’.
car (G.) ‘string of beads or pearls’.
car yr én (W.) ‘the jawbone’.
càra (G.) ‘akin’.
cara (Sp.) ‘face, visage’.
càraid (G.) ‘pair, couple, brace; twins; married couple; defences’.
caran (G.) ‘beloved person’.
caran (Hind.) ‘foot’, perhaps from having two that match.
carbad (G.) ‘the jaw, upper or lower’. One of a pair.
carc, cairc (G.) ‘care, anxiety’.
carca (Hind.) ‘repetition’.
carcat, carket (Sc.) ‘necklace, pendant ornament, garland of flowers worn round the neck’.
carco (W.) ‘to take care’.
care (E.) ‘heedfulness, heed, oversight; to watch over’.
care (Lat.) ‘dearly, with affection’.
caress (E.) ‘to fondle, to touch with affection’.
cark (E.) ‘care, anxiety’.
carmon (W.) ‘sweetheart, lover’.
càrr (G.) ‘spear’ (a spear-head had a symmetrical shape).
caru (Hind.) ‘elegant, agreeable, welcome’.
carus (Lat.) ‘dear, precious, beloved’.
cauras (Hind.) ‘level, even, flat; square’.
ceart- (Ir.) in compounds ‘exact, right, symmetrical, square’.
cern (W.) ‘jaw, side of head’.
cherish (E.) ‘to hold dear’.
cor (Lat.) ‘heart’.
corazon (Sp.) ‘heart; affection; kindness’.
corcesca (Sp.) ‘ancient barbed spear’, perhaps from its shape.
còrn (G.) ‘horn, drinking horn or cup; trumpet; robe’.
cornu (Lat.) ‘horn’. One of a pair, together heart-shaped.
cornucopia (Lat.) ‘the horn of plenty’.
corran (G.) ‘beard’.
corran (G.) ‘point of a weapon, spear; barbed arrow’.
corranach (G.) ‘barbed, notched, hooked’.
curcuddoch (Sc.) ‘familiar, intimate’.
gore (E.) ‘spear’.
gore (E.) ‘triangular piece of ground or cloth’.
gratus (Lat.) ‘beloved, dear, pleasing’.
gyron (E.) ‘triangular form in heraldry’.
harras (Fin.) ‘devoted’.
hertz (Ger.) ‘heart, pith, core’.
horn (E., Ger.)
kardia (Gr.) ‘the heart’.
karah (Skr.) ‘hand’. One of a matching pair.
karo (Ger.) ‘diamond, square’.
kear (Gr.) ‘the heart’.
keras (Gr.) ‘horn’.
kverk (Old Norse) ‘angle below chin’.
par (Sp.) ‘equal, even, alike, level’. P/Q equivalence.
quarrel (E.) ‘short square-headed arrow’.
querer (Sp.) ‘to like, love, cherish; to agree’.
querido (Sp.) ‘dear, darling; lover’.
scardas (Lith.) ‘echo’.
square (E.)

3.a. The Hunt
àr (G.) ‘battle, slaughter (hunt)’.
àra (G.) ‘slaughter’.
barb (E.) ‘to pierce, as with a barb’. P/Q equivalence.
cairbh (G.) ‘carcass, dead body’.
carcass (E.) ‘dead body (of an animal)’.
carfuffle, kerfuffle (Sc.) ‘commotion, fuss, disorder’ (a hunt).
carker (Sc.) ‘left-handed, sinister, fatal’ - but an omen predicting death was lucky for a hunter.
càrn (G.) ‘meat, flesh, booty’.
càrn (Ir.) ‘heap, cairn, large number; in a heap or mass, congested, thick-set’. Perhaps originally a pile of carcasses.
càrn, càirn (G.) ‘to heap, pile, accumulate, pile together’.
carna (Hind.) ‘graze (eat grass)’.
càrnach (G.) ‘to pile up’.
carnach (Ir.) ‘in masses (of the hair)’.
carnage (E.) ‘heap of slain, slaughter’.
carnage (Fr.) ‘the act of killing large numbers of animals or people’.
carpir (Sp.) ‘wrangle, quarrel; stun’ (hunt).
carraid (G.) ‘conflict, strike’ (hunt).
carrywattle (Sc.) ‘general scrimmage’ (a hunt).
cèarn (G.) ‘victory’.
cèarr (G.) ‘unlucky, left-handed’. Sc. corry-pawed.
cernen (W.) ‘slap, smack, buffet’.
cerro (Sp.) ‘heap, pile, high ground’.
certh (W.) ‘sharp, keen; awful, terrible, violent’.
cira (Hind.) ‘cut, incision, wound’.
corp (G.) ‘body, carcass’.
corpse (E.) ‘dead body’.
crib (E.) ‘to steal’ (hunt).
curnab (Sc.) ‘to pilfer, seize’ (hunt).
curriewurrie (Sc.) ‘violent dispute’ (a hunt).
cyrch (W.) ‘attack, assault’.
cyrchu (W.) ‘to press forward, attack, aim’.
garat (Hind.) ‘plunder, pillage, devastation’ (hunting)’.
gare (Alb.) ‘race, competition’.
gore (E.) ‘to stab, pierce with the horns.’
hair (E.), also Fin. karva, Gr. kar ‘the hair of the head’, Gr. kara ‘head’, Nor. hår, etc. This appears to mean ‘many, innumerable’ which is upheld by Ir. carnach ‘in masses (of the hair)’.
harace (Fr.) ‘to hunt, chase’. E. harass.
harm (E., Ger.) ‘injury, hurt’.
harry (E.) ‘to plunder, ravage’ (to hunt).
herbst (Ger.) ‘autumn, harvest’. Autumn marked the start of hunting after the summer.
karas (Lith.) ‘war (hunting)’.
karas (Lith.) ‘warfare’ (hunting).
kari (Hind.) ‘mortal (as a wound)’.
karoun (Gr.) ‘to stupefy’.
kartab (Hind.) ‘exploit, feat; art, skill, sleight of hand’.
kerata (Fin.) ‘to collect, gather’.
kerkoj (Alb.) ‘to look for, seek, hunt’.
kharbar (Hind.) ‘noise, tumult, confusion’.
kiire (Fin.) ‘hurry, rush’.
korppi (Fin.) ‘raven’.
quarrel (E.) ‘violent contention’.
seurata (Fin.) ‘follow’.
skersti (Lith.) ‘to kill, slaughter, butcher’.
skirmish (E.) ‘irregular fight between small parties’.
skirr (Sc.) ‘to scour, search, range over’.
sortua (Fin.) ‘collapse, crash to the ground’.
suure (Fin.) ‘entity, quantity’.
suuri (Fin.) ‘great, large’.
turbe (Gr.) ‘disorder, throng, bustle’, Lat. turba ‘turmoil, hubbub, uproar’.

3.b. Hunters
arbiter (Lat.) ‘judge’.
archos (Gr.) ‘supreme, chief’.
argus (Gr.) ‘a vigilant watcher with a hundred eyes’: the leader of a communal hunt of fifty men?
arm (E.) ‘power; manpower; weapon.
army (E.) ‘a numerous body of armed men under unified command (a gang of hunt-followers)’.
arne (Alb.) ‘patch’. Probably a disparaging way of referring to the skin clothing worn by hunters. W. carp, Sp. harapo, Lith. skarmalas all have the same meaning.
arren (Gr.) ‘males (hunters)’.
barbaros (Gr.) ‘falling short of civilised standards’ (hunters).
caelebs (Lat.) ‘single man’ (hunter). R/L equivalence.
car (G.) ‘contact, neighbourhood’.
càr (G.) ‘friend, relation’.
câr (W.) ‘friend, relation’.
carl, churl (E.) ‘man of the lowest class, serf, freeman without rank’ (hunter).
carp (W.) ‘clout, rag’.
carpere (Lat.) ‘calumniate, slander’.
cearb or ceart (Ir.) ‘rag’.
cèarn (G.) ‘man’.
cèarnabhan (G.) ‘hornet’.
cèarnair (G.) ‘conqueror’.
cèarn-fearnadh (G.) ‘destroying’.
ceraint (W.) ‘kindred, relatives’.
cerdded (W.) ‘plight’.
chara (Hind.) ‘single man’ (hunter).
cor (Hind.) ‘thief, robber’ (hunter).
erakko (Fin.) ‘hermit’ (hunt official).
garkat (Hind.) ‘murderer, assassin’ (hunter).
gerfalcon (E.) (hunting bird).
german (E.) ‘of the first degree of relationship; closely allied’. 'Those who hunted together'?
gir (O.H.Ger.) ‘vulture’, now geier.
harapo (Sp.) ‘rag’ (probably a reference to skin clothing).
harbinger (E.) ‘one who went before to arrange lodging; M.E. herbergeour, as Fr. auberge, Du. herberg ‘inn, tavern’.
haret (Fr.) ‘a cat who has returned to the wild and lives by hunting’.
harman (E.) ‘constable’ (hunt official).
harrier (E.) ‘cross-country runner (hunter); a small keen-scented dog for chasing hares’.
hermano (Sp.) ‘brother’, Lat. germanus.
hermit (E.) ‘one who lives an isolated life; Gr. eremos ‘solitary’.
hero (general) ‘hunter’?
kara (Gr.) ‘head; person’. Russian tsar, czari, Alb. car.
karfolk (Nor.) ‘men-folk’ (hunters).
karingas (Lith.) ‘martial, warlike’.
kerdzius (Lith.) ‘herdsman’.
kern (Sc.) ‘foot soldier’ (hunter).
kerel (Du.) ‘young man, young fighter (hunter)’.
koira (Fin.) ‘dog’.
serkku (Fin.) ‘cousin’.
seura (Fin.) ‘company’.
skarmalas (Lith.) ‘rag’. A disparaging reference to skin clothing.

3.c. The hunting grounds
aro (Fin.) ‘steppe’.
arx (Lat.) ‘castle, citadel, fortress’.
càr (G.) ‘mossy plain, fen’.
cara (Hind.) ‘grazing ground, pasture’.
càraidh (G.) ‘defences’.
cardd (W.) ‘disgrace, exile’. Men were perhaps banished to the wilds as a punishment.
càrn (G.) ‘province’.
càrn, càirn (G.) ‘rock, heap of rocks piled loosely together’.
cartref (W.) ‘home, abode’.
cèarn (G.) ‘region, quarter, corner’.
cerdded (W.) ‘to walk, go, travel, move on’.
cerril (Sp.) ‘uneven, rough, wild’.
corcach (G.) ‘moor, marsh’.
cyrch (W.) ‘circle, circuit, centre, goal, resort, haunt’.
erämaa (Fin.) ‘the wilds’.
garh (Hind.) ‘fort, stronghold’.
kara (Gr.) ‘head, top, summit’.
kärki (Fin.) ‘point, tip, head, end’.
kary (Ru.) ‘border, edge, country, region’.
korpi (Fin.) ‘backwoods, wilderness’.
quarter (E.) ‘place of residence’.
särmä (Fin.) ‘edge’.
syrja (Fin.) ‘edge, border, margin’.

3.d. Traps and ambushes
arrest (E.) ‘to stop’.
arroyo (Sp.) ‘ravine (trap)’.
calabozo (Sp.) ‘dungeon, cell, jail’.
carc (G.) ‘to put in a cell’.
carcair (G.) ‘prison, coffer, sewer in a cattle-shed’.
carcan (Fr.) ‘an iron collar fixed to a post, used to display a criminal’.
carceir (Sc.) ‘to imprison’.
carcel (Sp.) ‘prison’.
carcer (Lat.) ‘enclosed place, prison, (trap, ambush)’.
carchar (W.) ‘prison; restraint; fetters’.
cardden (W.) ‘thicket, brake’ (a deer trap).
çarë (Alb.) ‘crevice, fissure, crack’ (used as a trap or pen).
carear (Sp.) ‘to tend a flock of sheep or drove of cattle’.
caregl (W.) ‘chalice, cup’.
carfagl (W.) ‘trap’.
çark (Alb.) ‘trap’.
càrn (Ir.) ‘rock; rocky shelf; a projecting part of a rock’.
càrnach (G.) ‘stony ground’.
carr (E.) ‘copse in boggy ground’ (deer trap).
carraig (G.) ‘rock, cliff, pinnacle, erect stone’.
carse (Sc.) ‘flat land near a river’.
cerca (Sp.) ‘hedge, fence, enclosure’.
cerrar (Sp.) ‘to close, shut, lock, fasten; obstruct; enclose, fence in; terminate; to engage the enemy’.
còrn (G.) ‘a horn-shaped enclosure or temporary arrangement of hurdles, boards, etc.’
corner (E.) ‘secret or confined place; to control by driving into a corner’.
corral (Sp.) ‘yard, enclosure, pen, fold’.
crib (E.) ‘a confined space’ (probably closed with a hurdle’.
gardas (Lith.) ‘pen, enclosure, fence’.
gart or gar (Hind.) ‘pit, ditch, gulf, chasm’.
harama (Ar.) ‘to forbid’.
harbour (E.) ‘shelter for troops’. Ger. herberge.
harceler (Fr.) ‘to pursue, run down’.
harim (Ar.) ‘secluded women’s quarters in a Muslim house’.
harmans (E. slang) ‘the stocks’, a way of immobilising and punishing an offender.
harpeizon (Gr.) ‘to seize’.
kara (Hind.) ‘prison’.
karal (Hind.) ‘high (as cliff); fearsome, dreadful’.
karara (Hind.) ‘steep high bank, precipice’.
kerker (Du., Ger.) ‘prison’.
kerte (Lith.) ‘corner’.
kirea (Fin.) ‘tight’.
korkea (Fin.) ‘high’.
kura (Fin.) ‘mud, mire’.
kuristaa (Fin.) ‘strangle, throttle’.
kurth (Alb.) ‘trap, snare’.
skardis (Lith.) ‘steep slope, precipice’.
surma (Fin.) ‘death’.

3.e. Signalling systems
cornu (Lat.) ‘horn’.
cyrnad (W.) ‘blast of a horn’.
garret (E.) ‘turret, watchtower’, from O.Fr. garite ‘place of safety’.
hare (Fr.) ‘cry to encourage dogs’.
horn (E., Ger.).
kermen (Du.) ‘to cry out’.
kirkaista (Fin.) ‘scream’.
skirl (Sc.) ‘to shriek or sing shrilly’.
warn (E.) ‘to give notice of pending action; to instruct; to summons’.

3.f. Equipment and weapons
arcus (Lat.) ‘bow’.
arm (E.) ‘weapon’.
arrow (E.) ‘stick equipped with a sharp tip and fired by means of a bow’.
båre (Nor.) ‘stretcher, bier’.
brògan (G.) ‘a type of shoe worn by hunters which was made from uncured deer-hide with the hide outermost’. Brògan served as snow-shoes.
caillou (Fr.) ‘stone, pebble’. L/R confusion.
càr (G.) ‘stone’.
car (G.) ‘throw’.
caran or garan (W.) ‘shank, stalk, crane, heron’.
carball (Irish) ‘boulder’, perhaps ‘round stone’.
carbatina (Lat.) ‘kind of rustic shoe’.
care (Sc.) ‘to rake from the bottom’.
cari (Hind.) ‘green stalks cut for fodder’.
càrn (G.) ‘rock, heap of stones piled loosely together’.
carpir (Sp.) ‘to clear the ground with a hoe’.
càrr (G.) ‘spear’.
carr (Ir.) ‘spear, lance, pike-staff, shaft, haft’.
carreg (W.) ‘stone, rock’.
cearr (G.) ‘wounding, cutting’.
cêr (W.) ‘tools, gear, tackle’.
cerl (W.) ‘kernels’.
char (Hind.) ‘pole, rod, staff, stem, stalk’.
charra (Hind.) ‘small stone; piece of shot’.
chert (E.) ‘flint-like variety of quartz’.
corcesca (Sp.) ‘ancient barbed spear’.
corran (G.) ‘point of a weapon, spear; barbed arrow’.
corranach (G.) ‘barbed, notched, hooked’.
garrot (Fr.) ‘piece of wood in a cord to tighten it by twisting’.
gerve (Lith.) ‘crane’.
gore (E.) ‘spear’.
grain (E.) ‘branch, prong, fork, in pl. a kind of harpoon’.
gur (Alb.) ‘stone’.
gurai (Hind.) ‘hoeing’.
hajar (Ar.) ‘stone’.
harava (Fin.) ‘rake’.
hard (E.) ‘like stone’.
hark (Alb.) ‘bow’.
harnais (Fr.) ‘the complete equipment of an armed man’.
harnas (Du.) ‘armour’.
harpon (Fr.) ‘harpoon’.
karapatinai (Gr.) ‘shoes made of undressed leather’.
karbi (Hind.) ‘hollow stalk of plant’.
kargas (Hind.) ‘kind of arrow’.
kari (Fin.) ‘sunken rock’.
karre (Nor.) ‘dig, poke, rake’.
karvalakki (Fin.) ‘fur cap’.
karvanak (Hind.) ‘crane’.
karvar (Hind.) ‘sword’.
kern (Ger.) ‘stone, heart, essence, core’.
kernel (E.) ‘heart, core’.
khar (Hind.) ‘long thatching grass’.
kirc (Hind.) ‘straight sword’.
kirves (Fin.) ‘axe’.
korsi (Fin.) ‘stem of grass, straw’.
kurki (Fin.) ‘crane’.
quarrel (E.) ‘short square-headed arrow’.
quarry (E.) ‘an open-air excavation from which stone is obtained’.
quartz (E.) ‘type of stone’.
sarvi (Fin.) ‘horn’.
schalis (Gr.), Lat. scala ‘forked stick used as a ladder’.
sora (Fin.) ‘gravel’.

3.g. The quarry
ari (Hind.) ‘enemy, foe’.
arklys (Lith.) ‘horse’.
arna (Hind.) ‘wild buffalo’.
aurochs (E.) ‘the urus or wild cow, ancestor of domesticated cattle’.
càr (G.) ‘fish’.
carcan (Fr.) ‘bad horse’.
carnen (W.) ‘wild sow’.
càrr (G.) ‘flesh of whale or seal’.
carw (W.) ‘deer, hart, stag’.
cear (G.) ‘stag, roe, hart’.
cearbh (Ir.) ‘hart, stag’, Lat. cervus.
cearc (Ir.) ‘hen, any female bird’.
cerdo (Sp.) ‘hog, pig’.
cervus (Lat.) ‘red deer’.
corcino (Sp.) ‘small deer’.
gaur (Hind.) ‘hind (female deer)’.
haras (Fr.) ‘stud of horses’.
harde (Fr.) ‘herd (of deer etc)’.
hare (E.). cf Fr. harer ‘to chase with dogs’.
haridelle (Fr.) ‘thin horse’.
harpail (Fr.) ‘troop of young deer’.
hart (E.) ‘mature male red deer’.
herde (Ger.), herd (E.) ‘herd, drove, flock, multitude’.
kara (Hind.) ‘buffalo calf’.
karhu (Fin.) ‘bear’.
karja (Fin.) ‘livestock’.
karju (Fin.) ‘boar, hog’.
karnikel (Austrian) ‘rabbit, bunny, scapegoat’.
karve (Lith.) ‘cow’.
kjær (Nor.) ‘deer’.
poro (Fin.) ‘reindeer’
sorsa (Fin.) ‘wild duck’.

3.h. Butchery
ardyti (Lith.) ‘to rip up, rip open, pull down, take to pieces, disjoint’.
barb (E.) ‘to shave, trim, mow’.
car (G.) ‘brittle’.
car (Hind.) ‘tearing or breaking sound’.
cara (G.) ‘leg, haunch, jaw, hog’s cheek’.
càra (Ir.) ‘hog’s cheek’.
carbi (Persian) ‘fat, grease, suet’.
carcase (Fr.) ‘disjointed body; body from which the flesh has been removed’.
carkin (Sc.) ‘scratching, grating’.
carm (Hind.) ‘skin, hide, leather’.
càrna (G.) ‘flesh’.
carnal (E.) ‘of the flesh, bodily; meat-eating’.
carnau (W.) ‘hoof, haft, handle’. A view of a hoof as a convenient hold.
carnival (general) ‘feast at which meat was eaten’?
caro, carnis (Lat.) ‘raw flesh’.
carpere (Lat.) ‘to pluck, pull to pieces’.
carpir (Sp.) ‘to scrape, scratch, tear’.
carpo (Lat.) ‘to gather, cull; dismember; eat, devour’.
carrion (E.) ‘the dead and rotting body of an animal; dead meat’.
carve (E.) ‘to cut up, esp. meat’.
cearbaim (Ir.) ‘I cut, hack’.
çerek (Alb.) ‘quarter’.
cern (W.) ‘side of head, cheek, jaw’.
chaire (Fr.) ‘flesh’.
charnel: (E.) ‘burial place; a place where bones are kept.
cirana (Hind.) ‘to cause to be torn, split’.
corada (Sp.) ‘viscera of an animal’; cf E. quarry.
corc (G.) ‘butcher’s cleaver’.
core (E.) ‘the inner part of anything’.
cur (Hind.) ‘cracking, crunching or smashing’. Bones were smashed to get at the marrow and its fat.
curée (Fr.) ‘the ceremonial dismembering of the stag’.
curi (Hind.) ‘cake made of crumbled bread and ghee’.
curna (Hind.) ‘cook, boil’.
currie (Sc.) ‘small stool’ (perhaps used for butchering small animals).
garner (E.) ‘to store, to accumulate’.
harigoter (Fr.) ‘to cut in pieces’.
harns (E.) ‘brains’.
kahl (Ger.) ‘bald, shorn; bare, naked’.
karkar (Hind.) ‘crackling, crunching’.
kerbe (Ger.) ‘notch, nick’.
kercas (Alb.) ‘crackle, snap’.
kerf (Du.) ‘notch, nick’.
kerma (Mod. Gr.) ‘fragment’.
khuruwj (Ar.) ‘stool, excrement’.
kiri (Fin.) ‘spurt’ (of blood).
kirka (Hind.) ‘cut to pieces’.
kirkir (Hind.) ‘creaking, grating’.
kreas (Gr.) ‘flesh, meat, piece of meat; carcass’.
quarry (E.) ‘the leftover parts of deer placed on the hide and fed to the hounds’.
quarry (E.) ‘total of animals killed; animals hunted or hawked at’.
sääri (Fin.) ‘leg’.
särkyä (Fin.) ‘to break, be broken’.
scrape (E.)
scratch (E.)
siru (Fin.) ‘chip, fragment’.
sorkka (Fin.) ‘hoof’.
survoa (Fin.) ‘pound, crush’.

3.i. The colour of blood
archil, orchil (E.) ‘a red or purple lichen dye’.
cardinal (E.) ‘of a deep scarlet colour, like a cardinal’s cassock or hat.’
carmine (E.) ‘the red colouring of the cochineal insect; Fr. carmin, Sp. carmin, Sp. carmesi ‘crimson’; from Ar. qirmizi, ‘kermes, the scarlet grain insect’.
càrnaid (G.): carnation, cochineal, flesh-colour, a certain tint of red much used in the Highlands’.
carnation (E.) ‘flesh-colour; a colour ranging from light pink to deep crimson’.
ceara (G.) ‘blood-coloured, red’.
ciru (Hind.) ‘red thread’.
corcuir (G.) ‘red, purple; bloody’.
corcur (G.) ‘scarlet, crimson, or purple dye’, made from a lichen, lecanora tartarea.
crimson (E.) ‘deep red colour tinged with blue; red in general; deep red’.
garance (Fr.) ‘madder plant; bright red’.
karafil (Alb.) ‘carnation’.
kerpe (Lith.) ‘lichen’ (many lichens can give a red or purple dye).
kirmazi (Ar.) ‘red dye, a bright red colour’.
purpura (Lat.) ‘purple’.
qirmizi (Persian) ‘crimson, scarlet’; qirmiz ‘kermes, the scarlet grain insect’, believed to be a berry of the oak tree. This insect was the source of a red dye, but not of the root word.
scarlet (E.), écarlate (Fr.). Said to have meant ‘precious cloth’ but more probably refers to the brilliant red colour obtained from cochineal.

3.j. Distribution of the spoils
arpa (Fin.) ‘lot, portion’.
car (Hind.) ‘four, a few’. This probably refers to the four quarters or joints of the animal.
cairbhist (G.) ‘carriage, load; baggage, bundle; feu-duty; personal service to a landlord’. See carnage, harvest.
caran (Hind.) ‘quarter, section’.
carnage (Norman Fr.) ‘flesh meat delivered by tenants to their feudal lord’.
carretada (Sp.) ‘cartful; abundance, profusion’.
kar (Hind.) ‘tax, tribute, toll’.
kara (Gr.) ‘head, top, summit, person’.
karai (Hind.) ‘granary, storehouse’.
quarry (E.) ‘square’.
quarter (E.) ‘fourth part’.

3.k. Complaints
barti (Lith.) ‘scold, chide, call abusive names’.
car (G.) ‘trick, fraud’.
carb (Sc. ) ‘raw-boned loquacious woman’.
carb, cark, chark (Sc.) ‘to cavil’.
carie (Sc.) ‘soft, pliable’.
caries (Lat.) ‘rot, decay, caries’.
carka (Hind.) ‘trickery’.
carnail (Sc.) ‘putrified, full of carrion’.
carne (Fr.) ‘meat of poor quality; an old horse’.
carp (E.) ‘to complain’.
carrono (Sp.) ‘putrid, rotten’.
cearnaighe (Ir.) ‘grumbling, complaining’.
chary (E.) ‘sparing, cautious, frugal’.
cirk (Hind.) ‘dirt, filth’.
corb (G.) ‘to corrupt, spoil, ruin’.
corn (E.) ‘very small object’.
corrupt (E.) ‘bad, rotten’.
curkut (Hind.) ‘something reduced to very small pieces’.
germ (E.) ‘very small thing’.
gore (E.) ‘dung, filth; shed blood’.
grain (E.) ‘a single very small particle, a very small quantity’.
grumble (E.) ‘complain’ also used of an empty stomach.
karg (Ger.) ‘scanty, poor, paltry, meagre; sparing, miserly, mean, niggardly, parsimonious’.
karg (Sw.) ‘sparing, chary; barren’.
karrig (Nor.) ‘scanty, skimpy’.
kern (Ger.) ‘kernel, pip’.
kiran (Hind.) ‘canker, rot’.
paltry (E.)
parsimony (E.)
poor (E.)
sparing (E.)

3.l. Hunger
careo (Lat.) ‘to be deprived of something’.
carere (Lat.) ‘to lack’.
carestia (Sp.) ‘scarcity, want, famine’.
cearnughadh (Ir.) ‘want, perplexity, fear’.
kahl (Ger.) ‘empty; skint’. L/R equivalence.
karaka (Hind.) ‘strict fast; hard times’.
scarce (E.) ‘in short supply.
ware (E.) ‘seaweed’. Perhaps used as famine food.

4. Farming
aro (Lat.) ‘to plough’. An eroded aspirate; a derivative of car.
cairb (G.) ‘plough’.
carcake, carecake, kercaik (Sc.) ‘cake baked with eggs and eaten on Shrove Tuesday’; see carnival.
corn (E.) ‘a generic word for grain; used in England for wheat, in Scotland for oats, in America for maize and in Germany for rye’.
cornage (E.) ‘a feudal rent fixed according to the number of horned cattle; horngeld’.
corran (G.) ‘sickle’.
cratch (E.) ‘crib, manger; wooden grating, hurdle’.
garner (E.) ‘to store, to accumulate’; O.Fr. gernier, Fr. grenier ‘grain store, attic’; Lat. granarium ‘granary’.
ghar (Hind.) ‘house, living quarters’.
grain (E.) ‘corn, cereals’.
harpe (Gr.) ‘sickle’.
harrow (E.) ‘dragged frame fitted with cross-pieces and spikes for pulverising ploughed land and covering seeds’. The aspirated form of car.
harvest (E.).
karhi (Fin.) ‘harrow’.
karitsa (Fin.) ‘lamb’.
karmlyenye (Ru.) ‘feeding, lactation’.
karova (Ru.) ‘cow’.
karst (Ger.) ‘mattock, two-pronged fork’.
kerita (Fin.) ‘to shear (a sheep)’.
kharuwf (Ar.) ‘lamb’.
korm (Ru.) ‘food, esp. milk’.
warren (E.) ‘piece of ground kept for breeding, esp. rabbits’.

5. Authority
archaikos (Gr.) ‘ancient, pertaining to the past’.
càrn, càirn (G.) ‘horning’.
garadh (Ar.) ‘aim, purpose’.
horn (E.) ‘put to the horn, outlaw’.
karalius (Lith.) ‘king’.
karsti (Lith.) ‘grow decrepit; live the rest of one’s days’.
sorto (Fin.) ‘oppression, tyranny’.

6. Transport
6.a. Materials and techniques
car (G.) ‘plait, fold’.
carb, cairb (G.) ‘plank’.
carona (Sp.) ‘padding of a saddle’.
carth (W.) ‘hemp, oakum’.
còrn (G.) ‘to plait, curl, fold cloth’.
cratis (Lat.) ‘wicker-work’.
curas (Hind.) ‘crease, wrinkle, fold’.
curriched (Sc.) ‘made of wicker-work; covered with hides’.
gershet (Alb.) ‘plait, braid’.
keree (Gr.) ‘wax’, used on sledge runners and for waterproofing.

6.b. Unwheeled frames
ara (G.) ‘bier’.
arfa (Lith.) ‘harp’.
arklas (Lith.) ‘wooden plough’.
arthi (Hind.) ‘bier’.
barbacoa (Haitian) ‘framework of sticks set upon posts’. C/B equivalence.
barbecue (E.) ‘framework for drying and smoking meat’.
berrie (Du.) ‘hand barrow, stretcher for wounded’.
bier (E.) ‘wooden frame used to carry the dead’.
car (W.) ‘raft; frame; drag or sledge’.
càr, càrn (G.) ‘raft for carrying things on, sledge’.
car, ker (Sc.) ‘a cart wanting wheels, ledges, sides and front; a sledge or hurdle for transporting hay or peats’.
carbad (G.) ‘litter’.
carbh (Ir.) ‘bier’.
carcass (E.) ‘frame’.
card (widespread) ‘instrument for combing fibres; thistle, teasel’.
carduus (Lat.) ‘thistle’, used in carding wool.
càrn, càirn (G.) ‘sledge, car, peat-barrow’.
càrr (G.) ‘sledge, slide car’.
carr (Ir.) ‘cross-beam of a harp, a harp’.
carré (Fr.) ‘framework of a bed’.
carrée (Fr.) ‘wooden framework’.
carriole (Fr. Canadian) ‘winter sledge on runners, pulled by horses’.
cerce (Fr.) ‘frame of a sieve’.
cercha (Sp.) ‘frame for building a vault’.
cerco (Sp.) ‘ring, fence, rim, border, edge; halo; circular motion; frame of picture, door, window’.
chair (E.) ‘movable seat for one; a vehicle, wheeled or carried, for one person’.
charpai (Hind.) ‘bed’.
charrue (Fr.) ‘plough’.
cradle (E.) ‘light bed or cot; framework of bars and cords’.
crate (E.) ‘wickerwork case, box of open bars or slats’.
cratis (Lat.) ‘hurdle’.
crib (E.) ‘receptacle for fodder; crate; child’s bed; a confined space’.
cribble (E.) ‘rough sieve used for sand, gravel or corn’.
currach (Sc.) ‘wickerwork pannier; small cart made of twigs’.
harp (Du.) ‘riddle, sieve’.
harp (E.) ‘stringed frame, often triangular’.
harv (Nor.), Dan harve ‘harrow’.
hearse (E.) ‘vehicle for transporting the dead; a framework for candles at a funeral’.
hulk (E.) ‘the outer framework of a wooden ship’.
hurdle (E.) ‘frame filled with twigs or sticks; a rough sledge used to draw criminals to the gallows’.
kjelke (Nor.) ‘sledge, toboggan’; Sw. kälke, Dan. kælk, Fin. kelkka. L/R equivalence.
karm (Norwegian) ‘frame, case’.
karm (Swedish) ‘arm, frame’.
karrige (Alb.) ‘chair’.
karsti (Lith.) ‘card, comb’.
kharak (Hind.) ‘hurdle used as a door’.
kursiy (Ar.) ‘chair, stool’.
pulk (Nor.) ‘reindeer sledge’. C/B and L/R equivalence.
salazki (Ru.) ‘small sleigh’. L/R equivalence.
surur (Ar.) ‘bed’.

6.c. Smaller containers
arke (Alb.) ‘chest, box’.
arkku (Fin.) ‘chest’.
carabela (Sp.) ‘large basket for provisions’.
caras, carsa (Hind.) ‘large leather bag or bucket’.
carb (G.) ‘basket’.
carna (Hind.) ‘large earthenware pot’.
carral (Sp.) ‘barrel, butt, vat’.
cerwyn (W.) ‘tub, vat’.
corbeille (Fr.) ‘basket’.
corbis (Lat.) ‘basket’.
corche (Sp.) ‘cork-soled shoe’.
corcho (Sp.) ‘cork’, lit ‘shoe’, from its use for soles.
corf (E.) ‘coal-miner’s basket’.
kar (Sw.) ‘vat’.
karaha (Hind.) ‘shallow wide pan or cauldron’.
karahi (Hind.) ‘small pan’.
karbad (Sw.) ‘bath’.
karcha (Hind.) ‘large ladle’.
karchul (Hind.) ‘ladle, stoker’s shovel’.
karuon (Gr.) ‘nut’.
karva (Hind.) ‘earthen pot with spout’.
karvara (Hind.) ‘type of bucket’.
karzena (Ru.) ‘basket’.
kirstu (Fin.) ‘chest, coffin’.
kori (Fin.) ‘basket’
kosara (Crt.) ‘basket’.
krat (Du.) ‘basket, box of a coach’.
krater (Gr.) ‘large bowl, mixing vessel’.
krepsinis (Lith.) ‘basket’.
qaraba (Per.) ‘large flagon’, E.carpoy.
shportë (Alb.) ‘basket’.

6.d. Wheeled vehicles
araba (Persian) ‘cart’.
barrow (E.). A BR cognate.
cairb (G.) ‘chariot’.
cairbhist (G.) ‘carriage’.
calèche (Fr.) ‘light carriage with folding top’. A Czeck version of 'carriage'.
car (E.) ‘motor-car’.
car (Fr.), from autocar. In 1857 ‘car on rails, now ‘bus’.
càr (G.) ‘cart, car’.
càr (G.) ‘jaw’.
car (US) ‘automobile; railroad car; passenger compartment in a cable railway’.
car (W.) ‘car, trap; any light two-wheeled vehicle’.
carb (G.) ‘chariot’.
carbad (G.) ‘chariot, coach, chaise; wagon’.
carbh (Irish) ‘carriage’.
carcka (Hind.) ‘rickety cart’.
carfen (W.) ‘car, cart, chariot’.
carfil (W.) ‘cart horse’.
carpentum (Lat.) ‘wagon, carriage, coach, chariot with two wheels’.
càrr (G.) ‘car, dray, chariot’.
carr (Ir.) ‘car, dray, wagon, sliding car or sleigh’.
carret (Cat.) ‘trolley’.
carreter (Cat.) ‘wheelwright’.
carretilla (Sp.) ‘small cart; push-cart, wheel-barrow, hand-cart; railway truck; heavy goods vehicle drawn by three mules (Arg., Ur.); long narrow cart, wagon (Chi.); jaw, jawbone (Arg., Chi).
carreto (Catalan) ‘wheelbarrow’.
carreton (Sp.) ‘cart, go-cart, truck, dray; pulley’.
carrie (Sc.) ‘two-wheeled barrow’.
carriole (E.) ‘small carriage, light cart’.
carro (Catalan) ‘cart, wagon’.
carrus (Lat.) ‘two-wheeled cart for heavy loads’. Fr. char.
carter (Catalan) ‘postman’.
cathair (G.) ‘gig’.
char (Fr.) ‘wagon’.
corbair (G.) ‘cartwright; coachman’.
currus (Lat.) ‘chariot’.
gari (Hind.) ‘conveyance, cart, carriage; car, truck, bus; bicycle; train, railway carriage’.
handkar (Du.) ‘barrow, push-cart’.
kalesche (Ger.) ‘light carriage, chaise’. An L version of 'carriage'.
kalyeso (Ru.) ‘wheel’. An L version of 'carriage'.
kar (Du.) ‘two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle’.
kar (Hind.) ‘doer, maker’.
karai (Lith.) ‘cart’.
kark (Arm.) ‘cart’.
kaross (Sw.) ‘chariot’.
karosse (Ger.) ‘state coach’.
karosse (Nor.) ‘coach’.
karr (Br.) ‘cart’.
karre (Ger.) ‘bone-shaker, jalopy, old car’.
karren (Ger.) ‘cart, barrow, wheel-barrow’.
karren (Ger.) ‘cart, wheel-barrow’.
karrette (Swiss Ger.) ‘wheel-barrow’.
karriol (Ger.) ‘two-wheeled chaise, gig; dog-cart; curricle’.
karro (Gr.) ‘cart’.
karroce (Alb.) ‘cart; wheel-barrow; hand-cart’.
karutis (Lith.) ‘wheel-barrow’.
karvan (Per.) ‘covered carriage or cart’.
kharkhariya (Hind.) ‘dummy cart used to train horses’.
kjerre (Nor.) ‘small cart’.
krat (Du.) ‘tailboard of a wagon’.
työntökärryt (Fin.) ‘barrow, wheel-barrow’.

6.e. Shipping
cairb (G.) ‘ship’.
carabela (Sp.) ‘carvel’, a type of ship built without overlapping planks.
caravelle (Fr.) ‘carvel’.
carb (G.) ‘ship’.
carbh (Ir.) ‘ship’.
careen (E.) ‘to beach a boat in order to clean its hull’.
carina (Lat.) ‘keel of a ship; nutshell’.
carène (Fr.) ‘that part of a ship’s hull which is normally under water’.
carraca (Sp.) ‘carrack, a large and slow merchant-ship’.
carreen (Sc.) ‘to lean to one side’.
caruel, kervel (Sc.) ‘carvel’.
caulk (E.) ‘to render a ship watertight by rubbing waterproof material into the seams’.
cèarn (G.) ‘hold of a ship’.
coracle (E.) ‘small boat made of skins stretched over wickerwork’.
currach (Sc.) ‘small boat or skiff’.
gaarib (Ar.) ‘boat’.
holkas (Gr.) ‘cargo ship’. L/R equivalence.
hulk (E.) ‘frame and outer body of a ship’. L/R equivalence.
karabl (Ru.) ‘ship, vessel’. As caravel, coracle.
karaka (Ar.) ‘ship’
karavee (Gr.) ‘ship’.
kareveel (Ger.) ‘carvel’.
karf (Ice.) ‘type of ship’.
karvan (Per.) ‘fleet of ships’.
kraak (Du.) ‘small ship’.
kurkur (Ar.) ‘merchant ship’.
oar (E.).

6.f. The cargo
cairbhist (G.) ‘load; baggage, bundle’.
cargo (E.) ‘freight’.
cark (Sc.) ‘load, burden’.
càrrec (Cat.) ‘load, charge, burden’.
carry (E.) ‘to transport’.
charge (E.) ‘load, burden’.

6.g. The route
career (E.) ‘racecourse; gallop at full speed’.
carrer (Cat.) ‘street’.
carrera (Cat.) ‘race-course’.
carril (Cat.) ‘rail, lane (on motorway)’.
charrière (Old Fr.) ‘roadway’.
chart (E.) ‘map, esp. for sea-farers’.
karvan (Per.) ‘convoy of travellers; (vb.) to travel through the desert’.

7. Circular motion
ari (Hind.) ‘wheel’.
arm (E.) ‘the fore-limb from shoulder to hand, a narrow projecting part, an inlet, a branch’.
armus (Lat.) ‘shoulder joint’.
car (G) ‘way, course; motion, movement; revolution; twist, bend, turn; winding’.
cár (Ir.) ‘mouth; a twisting of the mouth’.
car (Sc.) ‘turning’ (prefix).
car mu char (G.) ‘round and round’.
caracoler (Fr.) ‘to wheel’.
cardo (Lat.) ‘turning point; pivot’.
cargolar (Cat.) ‘to screw, wind up’.
carkha (Per.) ‘wheel, pulley, bobbin’.
carn (G.) ‘quern, hand-mill for grinding corn’.
carr (Ir.) ‘mouth, face, grimace’.
carrete (Sp.) ‘spool, bobbin’.
carrillo (Sp.) ‘hoisting tackle’.
carrousel (Fr.) ‘tilting match or tournament; (USA) ‘merry-go-round; any revolving object such as a luggage dispenser at an airport’.
cerceau (Fr.) ‘hoop of a barrel’.
char (Fr.) ‘tease, bluff’.
circle (E.)
coire (G.) ‘whirlpool, cauldron’.
corronach (G.) ‘circular’.
crub (G.) ‘bend, hook’.
curve (E.).
galgal (Heb.) ‘wheel’. L/R interchange.
gar’ha (Hind.) ‘hollow, crater’.
gardis (Hind.) ‘going round, revolution’.
gargari or garr (Hind.) ‘instrument for twisting thread or string’.
gerve (Lith.) ‘winch’.
gharafa (Ar.) ‘to draw water’. This often involved a wheel.
girna (Lith.) ‘mill-stone’.
gurus (Gr.) ‘circle’.
harmos (Gr.) ‘joint’.
kaarre (Fin.) ‘to bend, curve’.
karpos (Gr.) ‘wrist’.
kerho (Fin.) ‘circle’.
keer (Du.) ‘turn; time (allocated slot)’.
kiero (Fin.) ‘twisted’.
kurttu (Fin.) ‘wrinkle’.
sarana (Fin.) ‘hinge’.
sormus (Fin.) ‘ring’.
sorvi (Fin.) ‘lathe’.

8. Irrational Activities
8.a. Singing and dancing
art, the arts (E.)
car (G.) ‘bar of music’
caran (Hind.) ‘bard, singer’.
carl (Sc.) ‘licentious song’.
carmen (Lat.) ‘a song’.
carol (E.) ‘ring-dance or the song sung to accompany it’.
carp (Sc.) ‘recite, as a minstrel; sing’.
carralles (Sc.) ‘carols, songs sung within and about churches on certain days.’ The primary activity was a round dance.
carrant (Sc.) ‘violent running dance; a great fuss’.
cerdd (W.) ‘music, song, poem; the arts’.
cerf (W.) ‘carving, sculpture’.
chirm, charm (E.) ‘to cry out, to chirp; noise, din of voices’.
choros (Gr.) ‘a dance in a ring in honour of the gods’.
corea (Sp.) ‘dance accompanied by a chorus’.
corronach (G.) ‘dirge, lament; a panegyric on the deceased with a recital of the worth and bravery of his ancestors’. The deceased is likely to have been a noble animal such as a stag and the corronach part of the curée (3.h).
harangue (Fr.) ‘solemn speech to an assembly’.
harmonie (Fr.) ‘music’.
kercéj (Alb.) ‘jump, dance’.
kirtan (Hind.) ‘group singing of hymns to a deity’.

8.b. Further irrational concepts
armo (Fin.) ‘mercy, grace’.
baraka (Ar.) ‘blessing’.
bekoren (Du.) ‘to charm, enchant’.
carlin (Sc.) ‘old woman, witch’, the Cailleach or hunt goddess.
càrnach (G.) ‘heathen priest’.
carraig (G.), carrick (Sc.) ‘wooden ball used in club games such as shinty’.
chara (Ru.) ‘witchcraft, sorcery, magic’.
charlatan (Fr.) ‘quack, fraud’.
charm (E.) ‘a spell or song with magical powers’.
corona (Lat.) ‘crown’.
coronach (G.) ‘dirge’.
coronaich (G.) ‘a woven crown or chaplet’.
cyrafu (W.) ‘to pardon, forgive’.
harpie (Fr.) ‘rapacious and filthy monster with the head (and body) of a woman and the body of a vulture.’
harridan (E.) ‘vixenish old woman’.
herm, herma (Gr.) ‘a head or bust on a phallic pillar, often double faced’.
hermetic (E.) ‘ a closed or secret medieval study of magic and alchemy’.
kaldonya (Ru.) ‘witch’. L/R equivalence.
karam (Hind.) ‘grace, favour, generosity, kindness’.
karma (Hind.) ‘religious observance’.
karrach (Sc.) ‘shinty’, a game with ritual aspects.
keleo (Gr.) ‘charm, bewitch, fascinate’. L/R exchange.
kerai (Lith.) ‘sorcery’.
kereti (Lith.) ‘fascinate, charm, bewitch’.
kirit (Hind.) ‘crown’.
kol (Du.) ‘witch’. Perhaps L/R exchange.
sorrow (E.)
sura (Fin.) ‘sorrow, grief’.
surra (Fin.) ‘mourn’.

8.c. Supernatural Beings
Carlin (Scots)
Ceres (Greek)
Circe (Greek)
Harpy (Greek)
Hermes (Greek)
Keres (Greek)
Valkyry (Scandinavian)

9. Cards and charts
card (E.) ‘small piece of pasteboard’.
carta, charta (Lat.) ‘paper’.
carte (Fr.) ‘card, map’.
carton (Fr.) ‘cardboard box’.
ceart (Ir.) ‘rag’.
chart (E.) ‘map, esp. a marine or hydrographical map’.
charter (E.) ‘any formal writing in evidence of a legal transaction’.
chartula (Lat.) ‘document’.
kirja (Fin.) ‘book’.

10. Miscellaneous(not counted)
càr (G.) ‘scab, mange, itch, leprosy’.
harja (Fin.) ‘brush, horse’s mane, crest, ridge’.
keroti (Lith.) ‘to grow, spread out’.

There is further discussion of the CR list in the introductory Chapter Eleven which deals with the Fire list.

How can ar have anything to do with hunting when it is the root of arable? The hunting link is shown by G. àr ‘battle’ (hunt) and àra ‘slaughter’, and by the first category of the list. The earliest framed vehicles were invented by hunters and then adapted by them as farming implements, notably the plough and the harrow. Words for ‘plough’ are very divergent, no doubt marking several local events in its evolution, but It. aratro shows a link with the A-frame sledge. The same ar root appears in E. harrow and Dan. harve. Ar is also found in Dan. foraar ‘spring’ and efteraar ‘autumn’. Dan. aar is now ‘year’ but once must have meant ‘the growing season’ or perhaps ‘harvest’. The link with Dutch ar ‘an A-frame sledge’ is reflected in Fr. charrue (Lat. carruca) ‘plough’. This provides some justification for seeing ar ‘to prepare the ground for seed’. All farming evolved out of the initiatives of hunters, and all farming language has hunting roots. Where they once harvested wild crops and herds, they cultivated tame ones. A life of bondage had begun.

801 words
01 January 2010

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